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Table 2 Weighted national prevalence of T2DM in childbearing age women in MENA countries

From: Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies in women of childbearing age in the Middle East and North Africa, 2000–2018

Country/populationNo. of studiesTested sampleT2DMT2DM prevalenceHeterogeneity measures
Range (%)Median
(%)
Weighted prev. %95% CISubgroup
p value
Q (p value)1I2 (%)295% prediction interval (%)3
Algeria
 Pregnant113032.3NENENENENENENE
Egypt
 Infertile2631817.6–32.625.128.217.4–40.3NENENENE
Iran
 General population4811,1434061.1–17.44.95.31.7–10.6< 0.001334.2 (p < 0.001)97.90.0–30.0
 Pregnant541352521.3–8.14.63.91.5–7.475.0 (p < 0.001)94.70.0–20.0
 Non-pregnant with a history of GDM21734412.7–32.722.724.718.5–31.5NENENE
Study period5
 2000–20091314,3245641.1–15.64.84.32.2–7.0< 0.001328.4 (p < 0.001)96.30.0–20.0
 2010–20181117010217.4NENENENENENE
 Overlapping611103632.7NENENENENENE
 Overall71515,6047021.1–32.75.16.23.5–9.5 471.6 (p < 0.001)97.00.0–20.0
Iraq
 General population4314802206.1–33.115.216.46.5–29.8NE56.7 (p < 0.001)96.5NE
Study period5
 2000–200911484933.1NENENE< 0.001NENENE
 2010–2018213321716.1–15.210.612.510.8–14.3NENENE
Jordan
 General population4 (2012–2013)17122.8NENENENENENENE
Kuwait
 General population4 (2002–2009/2004)429802120.0–13.94.85.41.5–11.2NE82.8 (p < 0.001)96.40.0–40.0
Lebanon
 General population4 (2003–2004)2544395.1–9.97.57.05.0–9.3NE11.2 (p < 0.001)NENE
Morocco
 General population4 (2001–2002)211320.0–2.81.41.30.0–4.7NE1.6 (p = 0.1)NENE
Oman
 General population4 (first quarter of 2000)320881323.4–15.27.98.02.9–15.40.248.9 (p < 0.001)95.9NE
 Pregnant (before 2011)11261814.3NENENENENENE
 Overall7422141403.4–15.211.19.34.2–16.2 59.1 (p < 0.001)94.90.0–50.0
Qatar
 General population4 (2007–2008)3471603.8–24.18.210.82.2–24.4NE31.5 (p < 0.001)93.7NE
Saudi Arabia
 General population43021,45227480.0–35.26.58.05.3–11.3< 0.0011679.1 (p < 0.001)98.30.0–30.0
 Pregnant459422100.8–18.02.44.30.5–11.5281.7 (p < 0.001)98.90.0–60.0
 Patients84452440.0–26.10.84.50.0–19.980.7 (p < 0.001)96.30.0–10.0
Study period5
 2000–20092725,05929350.0–35.28.29.26.0–13.0< 0.0012214 (p < 0.001)98.80.0–40.0
 2010–2018112787670.0–18.52.22.80.7–6.0101.7 (p < 0.001)90.20.0–20.0
 Overall73827,84630020.0–35.25.17.24.6–10.2 2679.8 (p < 0.001)98.60.0–30.0
Tunisia
 General population4 (2005)321911905.1–12.08.88.44.9–12.8NE23.0 (p < 0.001)91.3NE
United Arab Emirates
 General population42127,04323371.2–26.27.18.04.8–11.9< 0.0011777.5 (p < 0.001)98.90.0–30.0
 Pregnant12337502.1NENENENENENE
 Non-pregnant with a history of GDM1549509.1NENENENENENE
Study period5
 2000–20091042314941.2–26.28.79.45.6–14.10.4182.9 (p < 0.001)95.10.0–30.0
 2010–2018939061692.1–12.25.66.03.3–9.584.5 (p < 0.001)90.50.0–20.0
 Overlapping6421,79217741.2–25.75.17.31.2–17.91499.9 (p < 0.001)99.80.0–80.0
 Overall72329,92924371.2–26.27.17.74.8–11.2 1921.1 (p < 0.001)98.90.0–30.0
Yemen
 General population4 (Before 2011)15459.3NENENENENENENE
All countries
Population
 General population58169,63063530.0–35.26.27.76.1–9.4< 0.0014443.5 (p < 0.001)98.20.0–30.0
 Pregnant1212,6705330.8–18.02.84.32.1–7.0460.7 (p < 0.001)97.60.0–20.0
 Non-pregnant with a history of GDM3722949.1–32.712.717.04.9–34.1NE94.1NE
 Patients84605440.0–26.12.04.50.0–19.9NE44.8NE
 Infertile2631817.6–32.625.128.217.4–40.3NENENE
Study period5
 2000–20097152,45947030.0–35.26.77.96.2–9.70.43280.9 (p < 0.001)97.90.0–30.0
 2010–20182693295290.0–32.64.95.83.4–8.7547.5 (p < 0.001)95.40.0–30.0
 Overlapping6521,90218101.2–32.77.410.93.4–21.81553.0 (p < 0.001)99.70.0–60.0
Ascertainment9
 WHO guidelines2714,84313580.0–32.78.48.66.6–10.80.4510.8 (p < 0.001)94.90.0–20.0
 ADA guidelines3450,30743120.0–33.16.07.44.9–10.33315.2 (p < 0.001)99.70.0–30.0
 IDF guidelines1555549.79.7NENENENENE
 Medical records/anti-DM medications/self-reported4017,98513180.0–35.25.06.84.5–9.51595.7 (p < 0.001)97.60.0–30.0
Sample size
 < 100161002720.0–32.14.85.52.7–9.10.469.7 (p < 0.001)75.60.0–20.0
 ≥ 1008482,68869700.0–35.26.17.86.3–9.55513.1 (p < 0.001)98.50.0–30.0
Overall1010283,69070420.0–35.26.17.56.1–9.0 5583.0 (p < 0.001)98.20.0–30.0
  1. 1Q: Cochran’s Q statistic is a measure assessing the existence of heterogeneity in estimates of T2DM prevalence
  2. 2I2: a measure assessing the percentage of between-study variation that is due to differences in T2DM prevalence estimates across studies rather than chance
  3. 3Prediction interval: estimates the 95% confidence interval in which the true T2DM prevalence estimate in a new study is expected to fall
  4. 4General populations could include healthy population, health care workers, migrant workers, or employees
  5. 5Year range does not cover every single year within that range. In studies with unclear information on when the study was conducted, we subtracted 2 years from the publication year as this was the median of the data collection period and the publication year for the other studies with full information
  6. 6Study period was before and after 2009
  7. 7Pooled estimate, regardless of the tested population, sample size, and data collection period, used the most updated criteria when T2DM was ascertained, based on different criteria in the same population
  8. 8Patients could be those on kidney dialysis, or with arthritis, organ transplant, cancer, HIV, COPD, PCOS, or schizophrenia
  9. 9Regardless of the year of the guidelines for the most updated criteria when T2DM was ascertained, based on different criteria in the same population
  10. 10Overall pooled estimate in the 15 countries regardless of the tested population, sample size, and data collection period, using the most updated criteria when T2DM ascertained using different criteria in the same population
  11. NE not estimable, CI confidence interval calculated using the exact binomial method, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, GDM gestational diabetes, WHO World Health Organization, ADA American Diabetes Association, IDF International Diabetes Federation, HIV human immunodeficiency syndrome, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome