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Table 1 Studies reporting T2DM prevalence in childbearing age women in the MENA region, 2000–2018

From: Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies in women of childbearing age in the Middle East and North Africa, 2000–2018

Author, year [Ref]Duration of data collectionCountry, citySettingDesignSamplingPopulationStrataAscertainment methodTested samplePositivePrev. (%)
Type 2 DM (46 reports in 14 countries)
 Taleb et al., 2011 [45]1/4–3/5/2008Algeria, Tebessa,ANC clinics in the Protection Maternal and infant located in different parts of TebessaCSUnclearPregnant women with an age range of 19–45 (mean age of 29.28 years)AllSelf-reported Diabetes, probably T2DM13032.3
 Eldesoky et al., 2013 [46]2009–2011EgyptInfertility Outpatient Clinic, Gynecology Department, Mansoura University HospitalCSConsecutiveInfertile young adult non-treated women with PCOS, ranging in age from 23 to 37 year.AllMedical records631828.6
Obese461532.6
Lean17317.6
 Ebrahimi et al., 2016 [47]2009–2014Iran, ShahroudIndividuals attending health centersCSStratified cluster sampling methodWomen attending health centers45–49 yearsFirst phase: DM defined as RPG ≥ 200 and/or taking antidiabetic drugs. Second phase: DM defined as FPG ≥ 6.99 mmol/L and/or A1C ≥ 6.5% and/or taking antidiabetic drugs, according to the ADA 2013 criteria58510217.4
 Valizadeh et al., 2015 [48]2004–2010Iran, ZanjanThree main hospitals of cityRCWhole populationWomen with a history of GDM were recruitedAllDM defined as FPG levels ≥ 126 mg/dL (≥ 6.99 mmol/L) or OGTT 2-h PG ≥ 200 mg/dl1103632.7
 Hossein-Nezhad et al., 2009 [49]Before 2009Iran, TehranFive university educational hospitals in TehranCSConsecutiveWoman gave birth (postpartum testing)AllFBS ≥ 126 mg/dl according to the ADA criteria24161958.1
 Azimi-Nezhad et al., 2009 [50]2004Iran, Khorasan ProvinceCommunity-basedCSCluster–stratified methodIranian women from rural and urban areas inAllDM ascertained if the subjects had a FPG ≥ 126 mg/dl (≥ 7 mmol/l) or where there was documented evidence of DM in their medical records, or treatment with hypoglycemic agents1719563.3
15–19 years260124.6
20–29 years46971.5
30–39 years46561.3
40–49 years525326.0
 Azimi-Nezhad et al., 2008 [51]Before 2008Iran, northeast IranGeneral population in urban and rural districts of the Khorasan provinceCSMultistage samplingWomen from general populationsAll
15–49 years
FBS > 126 mg/dL according to the ADA 2003 guidelines1232403.2
15–19 years2114.8
20–29 years25831.2
30–39 years45461.3
40–49 years499306.0
 Hadaegh et al., 2008 [52]1999–2001Iran, TehranGeneral population. Part of Tehran Lipid and Glucose StudyCSMultistage samplingWomen recruited from general population with mean age 43.5 years. Unclear pregnancy status.All
20–49 years
DM defined according to ADA 2003 criteria. Undiagnosed DM: FPG < 5.6 and 2 h–PG < 7.7 mmol/L. Unknown DM: FPG 5.6 to 6.9 and 2 h–PG 7.7 to 11.0 mmol/L37662647.0
20–29 years1171131.1
30–39 years1464755.1
40–49 years113117615.6
 Keshavarz et al., 2005 [53]12/1999–01/2001Shahrood City, IranFatemiyeh Hospital, Shahrood cityPSConsecutiveAll non-pregnant (postpartum) diagnosed with GDM in the recent pregnancy. Twin pregnancies, miscarriages, terminations and women with preexisting diabetes were excluded from our studyAllFPG > 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol) on two occasions, or 2 h values in the OGTT 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol) were diagnosed as overt diabetes according to ADA criteria63812.7
 Mansour et al., 2014 [54]1/2011–10/2012Iraq, BasrahCommunity-basedCSSimple randomIraqi femalesAll
19–45 years
According to the ADA 2010 classification: FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mol/L) or HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or OGTC 2-h plasma glucose was 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L)133217112.8
19–30 years345216.1
31–45 years98715015.2
 Mansour et al., 2008 [55]2007–2007Iraq, BasrahPopulation-based study conducted in rural areasCSRandom samplingWomen recruited from general population with age 20–60+ years with an unclear pregnancy status20–39 yearsFPG ≥ 126 mg/dl according to the ADA 2000 criteria1484933.1
 Abu-Zaiton and Al-Fawwaz, 2013 [56]10/2012–1/2013JordanAl-Albayt UniversityCSRandomFemale university students with a mean age of 19.7 yearsAllFBG > 126 mg/dL7122.8
 Ahmed et al., 2013 [57]2002–2009KuwaitKuwait National Nutritional Surveillance DataCSUnclearWomen with age 20–69 years attending health centers for mandatory health examination for employment, pensions or Haj. Unclear pregnancy statusAll
20–49 years
DM defined as FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, according to the WHO 2003 criteria29452127.2
20–29 years1246423.4
30–39 years857536.2
40–49 yeas84211713.9
 Diejomaoh et al., 2007 [58]10/2002–06/2004KuwaitObstetrics department, Maternity HospitalCSConsecutivePatients who had ≥ 3 consecutive spontaneous miscarriages were classified as patients with recurrent spontaneous miscarriageAllThe fasting glucose was determined soon after the collection of the blood samples3500.0
 Tohme et al., 2005 [59]2003–2004LebanonHousehold surveyCSSystematic samplingWomen recruited from general population with an unclear pregnancy statusAll
30–50 years
Self-reported DM. Diagnosed by a health professional and on management of DM544397.2
30–40 years311165.1
41–50 years233239.9
 Rguibi and Belahsen, 2005 [60]10/2001–04/2002Morocco, LaayounePublic Health Center during an immunization programCSRandom SamplingNon-pregnant women aged 15 years or older, Sahraoui ethnic origin with no previous systemic diseaseAll
15–34.9 years
According to the ADA criteria FPG was categorized into normal fasting glucose (NFG) (FPG,6.1 mmol/l), IFG (IFG) (FPG 6.1–6.9 mmol/ l) and diabetes (FPG > or equal 7 mmol/ l)11321.8
15–25 years4200.0
25–34.9 years7122.8
 Gowri et al., 2011 [61]Unclear, Over a period of one calendar yearOman, MusactObstetrics Department of the Sultan Qaboos University HospitalCSConsecutivePregnant Omani women with a mean an age range of 24–42 years attending ANC care servicesAllBlood testing1261814.3
 Al-Lawati et al., 2002 [62]First quarter of 2000OmanNation–wide surveyCSMulti–stage stratified probabilityOmani adult women ≥ 20 yearsAll
20–49 years
FPG ≥ 7 mmol/L according to WHO 1999 criteria or a previous history of diabetes diagnosed by a physician regardless of their FPG concentration20881326.3
20–29 years1186403.4
30–39 years619497.9
40–49 years2834315.2
 Bener et al., 2009 [63]1/2007–7/2008QatarPopulation–basedCSMultistage stratified cluster samplingQatari nationals above 20 years of ageAll
20–49 years
FBG concentration ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and/or 2 h post–OGTT venous blood glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol/L according to the WHO 2006 guidelines4716012.7
20–29 years13053.8
30–39 years171148.2
40–49 years1704124.1
 Al-Nazhan et al., 2017 [64]2010–2012Riyadh, Jeddah, Najran, AlbahaDental Clinics in the cities and King Saud University RiyadhCSRandomThe samples were randomly selected according to the following inclusions criteria: subjects over 16 years of age with more than 10 teeth (excluding third molars) who required the panoramic radiograph as part of dental diagnosis and treatment plan were included in the studyAll
16–45 years
Unclear29531.0
16–25 years12110.8
26–35 years11000.0
36–45 years6423.1
 Saeed, 2017 [65]2005Saudi ArabiaPrimary Health CentersCSMultistage stratified cluster random samplingSaudi adults aged 15–64 yearsAll
15–49 years
Data was collected using the WHO STEP-wise questionnaire which includes sociodemographic, life style habits, NCD, associated factors in addition to biochemical and blood pressure measurements185432217.4
15–24 years464326.9
25–34 years5736511.3
35–44 years59814824.7
45–49 years2197735.2
 Bahijri et al., 2016 [66]UnclearSaudi Arabia, JeddahHousehold surveyCSMultistage samplingWomen recruited from general population, with age 18–60+ years with an unclear pregnancy statusAllFPG ≥ 126 mg/dl and/or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%608396.4
18–20 years12600.0
20–< 30 years18342.8
30–< 40 years15386.5
40–< 50 years1462718.5
 Al-Rubeaan et al., 2015 [67]2007–2009Saudi Arabia, 13 regionsSaudi–DM national level household population-based studyCSRandom samplingMen & Women with age 30 – ≥ 70 years with known & unknown GDM and DM statusAll
30–49 years
DM defined according to ADA 2011 criteria (FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL)2853512.3
30–39 years212209.4
40–49 years731521
 Al Serehi et al., 2015 [68]2011–2013Saudi Arabia, RiyadhA single center study conducted at King Fahad Medical CityCSWhole populationPregnant women with mean age 29.9 yearsAllMedical records and unclear1718140.9
 Al-Rubeaan et al., 2014 [69]2007–2009Saudi Arabia, NationwideSaudi–DM national level household population-based studyCSRandom samplingPregnant women in different trimesters, recruited from general population with age 18–49 yearsAll
18–49 years
FPG according to ADA 2011 criteria and self-reported549162.9
18–29 years26431.1
30–39 years21273.3
40–49 years7368.2
 Amin et al., 2014 [70]2012–2012Saudi Arabia, Al-HassaPrimary care center located in King Faisal UniversityCSUnclearNon-pregnant university employees with age 20–63 yearsAll
20–49 years
FPG ≥ 126 mg/dl and/or using antidiabetic medicines166116.6
20–< 30 years3100.0
30–< 40 years6834.4
40–< 49 years67811.9
 Wahabi et al., 2012 [71]1/1/−31/12/2008Saudi Arabia, RiyadhKing Khalid University HospitalCSUnclearWomen who were admitted to the labor ward in King Khalid University HospitalAllMedical records where DM was ascertained before the index of pregnancy3157501.6
 Saeed 2012 [72]2005–2005Saudi Arabia, RiyadhNational population-based survey conducted in 20 health regionsCSMultistage samplingWomen recruited from general population with age 15–64 years. Unclear pregnancy status.All
15–44 years
Self-reported DM. Diagnosed by a health professional and on management of DM16591317.9
15–24 years528122.3
25–34 years556274.8
34–44 years5759216.0
 Al-Daghri et al., 2011 [73]UnclearSaudi Arabia, RiyadhPatients recruited from homes and invited to visit primary healthcare centersCSRandom samplingWomen attending outpatient clinics with age 7–80 years. Unclear pregnancy status18–45 yearsAccording to WHO 1999 criteria. FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L23732289.6
 Alqurashi et al., 2011 [74]6/2009Saudi Arabia, RiyadhKing Fahad Armed Forces HospitalCSAll patients during the study periodFemale patients attending a primary care clinicAll
20–49 years
Self-reported confirmed by diabetic therapies236134314.5
20–29 years942444.7
30–39 years7618210.8
40–49 years65821733.0
 Al-Baghli et al., 2010 [75]28/8/2004–18/2/2005Saudi ArabiaCommunity-basedCSAll residents were invited to participate in this surveySaudi female subjects aged 30 years and above who resided in the Eastern ProvinceAll
30–49 years
History of DM or FBG of ≥ 126 mg/dl (≥ 7.0 mmol/l), or the casual capillary blood glucose was ≥ 200 mg/dl (≥ 11.0 mmol/l) according to the ADA 2003 guidelines9092152516.8
30–39 years28701756.1
40–49 years6222135021.7
 Al-Qahtani et al., 2006 [76]2004–2005Saudi Arabia, King Khalid Military City, NorthernPrimary Health ClinicsCSWhole populationNon-Pregnant womenAll
18–49 years
Individuals with self-reported history of DM with anti-DM medication and those with FPG ≥ 7 mmol/L1906945.1
18–19 years8300.0
20–29 years737131.8
30–39 years890455.1
40–49 years1963618.4
 Shaaban et al., 2006 [77]2001–2002Saudi Arabia, JeddahMaternity and Children’s HospitalCSConsecutiveAll pregnant women with a singleton live birthAllUnclear313103.2
      All pregnant women admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of singleton IUFD at the third trimester with a fetal weight of 1500 g and more. Multiple pregnancy and intra-partum IUFD were excluded  1574126.1
 Habib, 2002 [78]2000Saudi Arabia, RiyadhObstetrics Unit King Khalid University HospitalCSConsecutivePregnant women undergone Cesarean section during the time period of the study in the hospital< 20–40+ yearsMedical records75413618.0
 Karim et al., 2000 [79]UnclearSaudi Arabia, RiyadhAl-Kharj Military HospitalCSRandom selection of medical recordsFemale patients age 18–34 yearsAllMedical records59940.7
 Ben Romdhane et al., 2014 [80]2005TunisiaNational household surveyCSMultistage samplingWomen recruited from general population, with age 35–65+ years with an unclear pregnancy statusAllAccording to WHO 1999 criteria. FPG ≥ 6.1, or confirmed or self-reported use of anti-DM medications in the past 2 weeks21911908.7
35–39 years709365.1
40–44 years758678.9
45–49 years7248712.0
 Sulaiman et al., 2018 [81]2013–2014UAE, (Dubai, Sharjah and Northern Emirates)Preventive Medicine Departments (Visa Renewal Screening Centers)CSSystematic Random SamplingMigrants recruited from Visa Renewal CentersAll
18–50 years
Medically confirmed DM and were either using glucose-lowering medications or had a FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥ 6.5% were classified as with known DM429245.6
18–30 years13364.5
31–40 years198115.6
41–50 years9877.1
All
18–50 years
FPG or HbA1c levels within the diabetes range. Cut-off values were used according to ADA to diagnose New DM cases429225.1
18–30 years13364.5
31–40 years19863
41–50 years981010.2
 Shah et al., 2017 [82]2012–2013UAE, Al AinVisa screening centerCSSystematic samplingMigrant workers with mean age 34.1 years with an unclear pregnancy status18–40 yearsSelf-reported, or use of a diabetic medication or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, according to the ADA 2015 criteria1561912.2
 Al Dhaheri et al., 2016 [83]2013–2014UAE, Al AinUAE UniversityCSRandom samplingUniversity students with age 17–25 years. Unclear pregnancy statusAllSelf-reported DM. Impaired fasting glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl or use of hypoglycemic medicines, following the IDF, AHA/NHLBI criteria555549.7
 Agarwal et al., 2015 [84]1/1/2012–31/12/2012UAE, Al AinTawam HospitalCSUnclearPregnant women attending the routine ANC clinics who were unaware of their antepartum DM statusAllFPG and/or 2–h OGTT glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and 11.1 mmol/L based on cut-off values of the ADA cut-off point, according to the ADA 2003 criteria2337502.1
 Hajat et al., 2012 [85]2008–2010UAE, Abu DhabiSEHA primary healthcare centers in Abu Dhabi EmirateCSWhole populationWomen enrolled in Waqaya screening program with age 18–75 years. Pregnancy status not reportedAll
18–49 years
DM defined as taking diabetes medicines, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or random blood glucose > 11.1 mmol/L, following the ADA 2010 criteria21,79217748.1
18–20 years25031.2
20–29 years10,6292872.7
30–39 years72165347.4
40–49 years369795025.7
 Baynouna et al., 2008 [86]3/2004–2/2005UAE, Al AinCommunity-basedCSStratified random samplingUAE citizens with mean age 44.1 years. Unclear pregnancy statusAll
20–49 years
Following ADA 2005 guidelines. FPG > 125 mg/dl, patient using diabetic medications or self-reported diabetes2994013.4
20–29 years5911.7
30–39 years11465.3
40–49 years1263326.2
 Saadi et al., 2007 [87]12/2005–11/2006UAE, Al AinPopulation–basedCSRandomNon-pregnant UAE citizen women ≥ 18 yearsAll
18–49 years
FBG concentration ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and/or 2 h post–OGTT venous blood glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol/L according to the WHO 1999 guidelines102810810.5
18–29 years627621.0
30–39 years240166.7
40–49 years1613018.6
 Malik et al., 2005 [88]10/1999–06/2000UAEPopulation-based studyCSStratified, multistage, random sampleNon-institutionalized subjects residing in the UAE and aged 20 years and above. The study design included only people who were living in a family residence and sharing the same income and excluded anyone who lived in workers barracksAll
20–44 years
FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or greater than, 7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h venous blood glucose concentration equal to or greater than, 11.1 mmol/l, or currently on hypoglycaemic agents. Abnormal glucose tolerance defined according to the latest recommendations of a WHO expert group235529612.6
20–24 years33941.2
25–34 years862728.4
35–44 years115422019.1
 Agarwal et al., 2004 [89]1/1998–12/2002UAE, Al AinObstetric clinics at the Al Ain HospitalRSUnclearWomen diagnosed with GDM who had the 2 h, 75 g OGTT, 4–8 weeks after delivery with a mean maternal age of 32 yearsAllFPG ≥ 7 mmol/L and/or 2 h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L according to the WHO 1999 guidelines549509.1
 Gunaid and Assabri, 2008 [90]UnclearYemen, Sana’aSemirural area of HamdanCSMultistage random samplingWomen with an age range of 35–44 yearsAllT2DM defined as 2-h capillary whole blood glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol/L according to the WHO 1999 guidelines5459.3
Pre-DM (24 reports in 10 countries)
 Valizadeh et al., 2015 [48]2004–2010Iran, ZanjanThree main hospitals of cityRCWhole populationWomen with a history of GDMAllIFG defined as FBS between 100 and 126 mg/dL (5.5–6.99 mmol/L)11010.9
IGT defined as blood sugar level of 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.77–11.04 mmol/L) in OGTT109.1
 Hossein-Nezhad et al., 2009 [49]Before 2009Iran, TehranFive university educational hospitals in TehranCSConsecutiveWoman gave birth with history of GDM (postpartum testing)IGT2-h postprandial glucose between 140 mg/dl and 199 mg/dl (7.8–11.0 mmol/l), according to the ADA criteria241651721.4
 Hadaegh et al., 2008 [52]1999–2001Iran, TehranGeneral population. Part of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.CSMultistage samplingWomen recruited from general population with mean age 43.5 years with an unclear pregnancy statusIFG/All
20–49 years
IFG defined according to the 2003 ADA criteria. IFG 5.6 to 6.9 and 2 h–PG < 7.7 mmol/L37662075.6
20–29 years1171403.4
30–39 years1464795.4
40–49 years1131887.8
 Azimi-Nezhad et al., 2008 [51]Before 2008Iran, northeast IranGenral population in urban and rural districts of the Khorasan provinceCSMultistage sampling methodWomen from general populationsIFG/AllFBS between 110 and 126 mg/dL, according to the ADA 2003 criteria1232151.2
15–19 years2100.0
20–29 years25810.4
30–39 years45440.9
40–49 years499102.0
 Hossein-Nezhad et al., 2007Before 2007Iran, TehranFive teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical SciencesCSConsecutivePregnant women referred to ANC visits with no known history of diabetesIGT/AllAccording to the Carpenter and Coustan 1979 criteria2416702.9
15–24 years1209211.7
25–34 years1001393.9
35–45 years206104.9
 Keshavarz et al., 2005 [53]12/1999–01/2001Iran, Shahrood CityFatemiyeh Hospital, Shahrood cityPSConsecutiveAll non-pregnant (postpartum) diagnosed with GDM in the recent pregnancy. Excluding twin pregnancies, miscarriages, terminations and preexisting DMAllNon-diabetic individuals with an FPG > 110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol) but < 126 mg/dl were considered to have IFG and those with 2 h value in the OGTT 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol) but < 200 mg/dl were defined as IGT, based on ADA criteria63711
 Mansour et al., 2014 [54]1/2011–10/2012Iraq, BasrahCommunity-basedCSSimple randomIraqi females with an age range of 19–94 yearsIFG (All)According to the ADA 2010 classification: FPG ranging from 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) to 125 mg/dL (6.9 mmol/L) or HbA1c ranging from 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) to 6.4% (46 mmol/mol) or OGCT with plasma glucose lvele of 140–199 mg/dL (7.7–11 mmol/L)133232424.3
19–30 years3455415.6
31–45 years98727027.4
 Mansour et al., 2008 [55]2007–2007Iraq, BasrahPopulation-based study conducted in rural areas.CSRandom samplingWomen recruited from general population with age 20–60+ years. Unclear pregnancy statusAll
20–39 years
IFG defined as FPG 100–125 mg/dl, according to the ADA 2000 criteria401640.0
 Abu-Zaiton and Al-Fawwaz, 2013 [56]10/2012–1/2013JordanAl-Albayt UniversityCSRandom samplingFemale university students with a mean age of 19.71 years ±2.55 SDIFGFBG between 100 and 126 mg/dL711014.1
 Ahmed et al., 2013 [57]2002–2009KuwaitKuwait National Nutritional Surveillance Data collected from primary health centersCSUnclearWomen with age 20–69 years attending health centers for mandatory health examination for employment, pensions or Haj. Unclear pregnancy statusIFG/All
20–49 years
FBG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/L, according to the WHO 2003 criteria29452789.4
20–29 years12461028.2
30–39 years857768.9
40–49 years84210011.9
 Alattar et al., 20122009–2010KuwaitCollege of applied education and trainingCSUnclearNon-pregnant college students with mean age 20.3 years17–24 yearsIGR/IGT defined as the presence of one or more of the following: FPG of ≥ 5.6 to < 7 mmol/l, 2-h postprandial glucose level of ≥ 7.8 to < 11.1 mmol/L and HbA 1c ≥ 5.6 to < 6.5%, according to the ADA 2010 criteria3119631
 Rguibi and Belahsen, 2005 [60]2001–2002Morocco, LaayounePublic health centersCSRandom samplingNon-pregnant women with mean age 36.8 years visiting health centers during an immunization campaignIFG/All
15–34.9 years
FPG between 6.1–6.9 mmol/L, following the ADA 1997 criteria11310.9
15–25 years4200.0
25–34.9 years7112.8
 Al-Lawati et al., 2002 [62]First quarter of 2000OmanNation–wide surveyCSMulti–stage stratified probabilityAdult women of Omani nationals aged ≥ 20 yearsIFG (All)FPG ≥ 6.1 but < 7 mmol/ l, according to the WHO 1999 criteria2088823.9
20–29 years1186282.4
30–39 years619376.0
40–49 years283176.0
40–49 years17042.4
IGT/AllIGR/IGT defined according to WHO criteria. 2 h post–OGTT PG 7.8–11.0 mmol/L, according to WHO 2006 criteria4716012.7
20–29 years130107.7
30–39 years1712212.9
40–49 years1702816.5
 Bener et al., 2009 [63]1/2007–7/2008QatarPopulation–basedCSMultistage stratified clusterQatari nationals above 20 years of ageIFG/AllFBG between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l, according to the WHO 2006 criteria47140.8
20–29 years13000.0
30–39 years17100.0
40–49 years17042.4
 Bahijri et al., 2016 [66]Before 2016Saudi Arabia, JeddahHousehold surveyCSMultistage samplingWomen recruited from general population with age 18–> 60 years. Unclear pregnancy statusAll
18–49 years
FBG of 100–125 mg/dl and/or HbA1c 5.7–6.4%608406.6
18–20 years12632.4
20–< 30 years18363.3
30–< 40 years153159.8
40–< 50 years1461611.0
 Al-Rubeaan et al., 2015 [67]2007–2009Saudi Arabia, 13 regionsSAUDI–DM national level population-based study.CSUnclearMen & Women with age 30 – ≥ 70 years with known & unknown GDM and DM statusAll
30–49 years
FBG between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L, according to the ADA 2011criteria2856121.4
30–39 years2124219.8
40–49 years731926.3
 Amin et al., 2014 [70]2012–2012Saudi Arabia, Al-HassaPrimary care center located in King Faisal UniversityCSUnclearNon-pregnant university employees with age 20–63 yearsIFG/All
20–49 years
FBG between 110 and 125 mg/dl16695.4
20–< 30 years3100.0
30–< 40 years6834.4
40–< 49 years6769.0
 Al-Daghri et al., 2011 [73]Before 2011Saudi Arabia, RiyadhPatients recruited from homes and invited to visit primary healthcare centers.CSRandom samplingWomen attending outpatient clinics with age 7–80 years. Unclear pregnancy statusAll
18–45 years
FPG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/L (110 to 125 mg/dL), according to the WHO 1999 criteria23732048.6
 Al-Baghli et al., 2010 [75]28/8/2004–18/2/2005Saudi ArabiaCommunity-basedCSAll residents were invited to participate in this surveySaudi female subjects aged 30 years and above who resided in the Eastern ProvinceIFG (All)FPG between 100 and 125 mg/dl (5.6–6.9 mmol/l), according to the ADA 2003 criteria1971502.5
30–39 years783131.7
40–49 years1188474.1
 Sulaiman et al., 2018 [81]2013–2014Dubai, Sharjah, Northern Emirates (UAE)UAEDIAB UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Population-b asedCSSystematic Random SamplingA random sample of migrants recruited from Visa renewal CentersIFG/All
18–50 years
FPG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/L4295212.1
18–30 years133129.1
31–40 years1982512.7
41–50 years981515.3
 Hajat et al., 2012 [85]2008–2010UAE, Abu DhabiSEHA primary healthcare centers in Abu Dhabi EmirateCSWhole populationWomen with age 18–75 years. Unclear pregnancy statusAll
18–49 years
HbA1c 5.7–6.4%, according to the ADA 2010 criteria21,940584426.6
18–20 years2444920.1
20–29 years10,785236221.9
30–39 years7220213029.5
40–49 years3691130335.3
 Malik et al., 2005 [88]10/1999–06/2000UAEPopulation-based studyCSStratified, multistage, random sampleOnly people (≥ 20 years) who were living in a family residence and sharing the same income and excluded anyone who lived in workers barracksIFG/All
20–44 years
FBG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/l23551757.4
20–24 years339175.0
25–34 years862586.7
35–44 years11541008.7
Only people (≥ 20 years) who were living in a family residence and sharing the same income and excluded anyone who lived in workers barracksIGT/All
20–44 years
2 h venous blood glucose level of 7.8–11.0 mmol/L on the OGT test205934716.8
20–24 years3354312.7
25–34 years79011314.3
35–44 years93419120.5
 Agarwal et al., 2004 [89]1/1998–12/2002UAE, Al AinObstetric clinics at the Al Ain HospitalRSUnclearWomen diagnosed with GDM who had the 2 h, 75 g OGTT, 4–8 weeks after delivery with a mean maternal age of 32 yearsIGTWHO 1999 criteria: FPG < 7 mmol/L and 2 h PG, 7.8–11.0 mmol/l5498415.3
IFGWHO 1999 criteria: FPG 6.1–6.9 mmol/l549305.5
 Gunaid and Assabri, 2008 [90]UnclearYemen, Sana’aSemirural area of HamdanCSMultistage random technique was usedWomen with an age range of 35–44 yearsIGTIGT < 6.1 mmol/L and 2–h capillary whole blood glucose concentration from ≥ 7.8 mmol/L to < 11.1 mmol/L, according to the WHO 1999 criteria5447.4
IFGFBG between 5.6 and 6.1 mmol/L, and 2-h capillary whole blood glucose concentration < 7.8 mmol/L, according to the WHO 1999 criteria5423.7
  1. CS cross-sectional, RS retrospective, PS prospective, GCT glucose challenge test, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, DM diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes, GDM gestational diabetes. ADA American Diabetes Association, WHO World Health Organization, UAE United Arab Emirates, FB/PG fasting blood/plasma glucose, FB/PS fasting blood/plasma sugar, RPG random plasma glucose, PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome, ANC antenatal care, IUFD intrauterine fetal death; WHO STEP WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, IFG impaired fasting glucose, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, IDF: International Diabetes Federation