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Table 7 Methodological approach for the economic evaluation of pharmacy-based public health interventions

From: An overview of systematic reviews of economic evaluations of pharmacy-based public health interventions: addressing methodological challenges

StepMethodological approach
1Performing a systematic or in-depth review of existing evidence prior to economic evaluation 
2Planning and conducting well-designed trial(s) for the assessment of effectiveness usingPICO framework for a clear definition of population, intervention, comparator and outcomes
EPOC study design to assist in the selection of the best possible study design
Risk of Bias for EPOC Reviews Tool to assist in strategies to minimize the most frequent risk of bias
3Planning and conducting an economic evaluation using:CHEERS Checklist to perform economic evaluations according to accepted standards
Recommendations for economic evaluations of public health interventions and for economic evaluations alongside trials to assist in adjustments: using a societal perspective; reliable linking of intermediate to long-term outcomes; choice of health outcomes may not allow for QALY; if costs and benefits also fall on nonhealth sectors, CBA approach may also be required; intervention costs must consider a retail price (as this would be the case if reimbursed); use of lower discount rates; other summary measures may be required if CEA nor CUA are used; and performing equity assessment
4Using a wider spectrum of research methods to understand:Contextual and process indicators affecting the behavior change of patients and providers and other variables
  1. PICO population, intervention, comparator, outcomes, EPOC Effective Practice and Organization of Care, CHEERS Consolidating Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards, QALY quality-adjusted life years, CBA cost-benefit analysis, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis, CUA cost-utility analysis