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Table 6 Triangulation with key recommendations on the economic evaluation alongside clinical or pragmatic trials

From: An overview of systematic reviews of economic evaluations of pharmacy-based public health interventions: addressing methodological challenges

#Key recommendationsOverview findings
1Study design:
Based on well-designed pragmatic/naturalistic trials with fewer strict protocols
2Selection of subjects and sites:
Seek for proximity to real-world target population and less restrictive patient inclusion criteria
3Sample size:
Based on important clinical outcome correlated with economic outcome, previous pilot or wider CI for ICER/CEAC
4Estimates beyond trial:
Appropriate length of follow-up, estimates beyond trial require survival analysis, link to final outcomes or regression
Current practice or standard of care should be the comparator, although there may be different standards of care
6Measures of outcomes:
Direct, single measures are preferred. Utilities collected directly from study subjects at regular intervals
7Data collection (resource use and costs):
Relevant resource use and cost measures collected with clinical data (case report forms, patient records, patient diaries, interviews, computerized record linkage)
8Valuation of costs:
May include: microcosting; unit costing; and gross costing
9Methods for cost and outcome analysis:
Arithmetic mean cost differences, bootstrapping, OLS or GLM for between group comparison; multivariable methods for outcomes; confidence intervals, p values, ICERs on various time horizons; summary measures
General description of trial and major findings; economic data collected alongside trial; missing and censored data; methods to construct, compare and project costs and outcomes; statistical methods; results on resource use, costs and outcomes; results within and beyond time horizon of trial.
  1. CI confidence intervals, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, CEAC cost-effectiveness acceptability curve