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Table 6 Triangulation with key recommendations on the economic evaluation alongside clinical or pragmatic trials

From: An overview of systematic reviews of economic evaluations of pharmacy-based public health interventions: addressing methodological challenges

#Key recommendationsOverview findings
1Study design:
Based on well-designed pragmatic/naturalistic trials with fewer strict protocols
2Selection of subjects and sites:
Seek for proximity to real-world target population and less restrictive patient inclusion criteria
3Sample size:
Based on important clinical outcome correlated with economic outcome, previous pilot or wider CI for ICER/CEAC
4Estimates beyond trial:
Appropriate length of follow-up, estimates beyond trial require survival analysis, link to final outcomes or regression
5Comparator:
Current practice or standard of care should be the comparator, although there may be different standards of care
6Measures of outcomes:
Direct, single measures are preferred. Utilities collected directly from study subjects at regular intervals
7Data collection (resource use and costs):
Relevant resource use and cost measures collected with clinical data (case report forms, patient records, patient diaries, interviews, computerized record linkage)
8Valuation of costs:
May include: microcosting; unit costing; and gross costing
9Methods for cost and outcome analysis:
Arithmetic mean cost differences, bootstrapping, OLS or GLM for between group comparison; multivariable methods for outcomes; confidence intervals, p values, ICERs on various time horizons; summary measures
10Reporting:
General description of trial and major findings; economic data collected alongside trial; missing and censored data; methods to construct, compare and project costs and outcomes; statistical methods; results on resource use, costs and outcomes; results within and beyond time horizon of trial.
  1. CI confidence intervals, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, CEAC cost-effectiveness acceptability curve