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Table 5 Triangulation with key recommendations on the economic evaluation of public health interventions

From: An overview of systematic reviews of economic evaluations of pharmacy-based public health interventions: addressing methodological challenges

#Key recommendationsOverview findings
1Review of evidence:
Systematic review or in-depth review of evidence prior to the economic evaluation of PHI
2Effectiveness and economic appraisal:
Economic appraisal linked to the appraisal of effectiveness of PHI
3Study designs:
When randomized trial not feasible, quasi-experimental designs or econometric techniques
4Perspective:
Societal perspective (public sector may be used where appropriate)
5Time horizon:
Trial data may need modeling but requires reliable link between intermediate and long-term outcomes
6Types of economic evaluation preferred:
CBA and CCA preferred but CUA and CEA also recommended whenever health is the sole benefit
7Nonhealth costs and benefits of PHI:
Need to capture costs and benefits falling on nonhealth sectors
8Discounting rates:
Lower discounting rates for PHI (1.5% for NICE, 3% for CDC) if costs and health effects accrued > 1 year
9Equity considerations:
Compare differences in health status changes between different health economic groups
10Wider spectrum of research methods:
Understand contextual and process indicators affecting behavior change and other variables
  1. PHI public health interventions, CBA cost-benefit analysis, CCA cost-consequence analysis, CUA cost-utility analysis, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis, NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention