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Table 4 Major key methodological findings

From: An overview of systematic reviews of economic evaluations of pharmacy-based public health interventions: addressing methodological challenges

Most frequent risk of biasesRandom sequence generation, allocation concealment, baseline characteristics, baseline outcome measurements similar, and contamination between intervention and comparator
Study designsNot restricted to RCTs or cluster RCTs
Economic quality criteriaMost criteria are met but there are some issues: not detailing target population; not describing “usual care” comparators; not including patient costs, indirect costs or intervention fees; analytical methods poorly described; incremental costs and outcomes sometimes not reported; not accounting for uncertainty
HeterogeneityIn populations, interventions and some outcomes
EquityNot assessed
Process dimensionsProcess dimensions that impact dissemination and external validity poorly described.
  1. RCT randomized controlled trial