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Table 1 Characteristics of included reviews

From: An overview of systematic reviews of economic evaluations of pharmacy-based public health interventions: addressing methodological challenges

First author (year SR)No. databasesSearch untilNo. included studies (CP/total)Countries of origin in CP studiesPopulations in CP studiesInterventions in CP studiesComparators in CP studiesOutcomes in CP studiesStudy design in trial-based CP studies
Schumock GY (1996) [44]21988–19952/104 (1.9%)USA (2)Patients requiring therapeutic monitoringTherapeutic monitoringNoneDrug costs avoided and no. interventions; avoided medical care costs per intervention
Schumock GY (2003) [45]21996–20006/59 (10.1%)USA (5), Australia (1)Patients individuals: requiring therapeutic monitoring; DS; with drug related problems; for flu immunization.Therapeutic monitoring; DSM; patient education or cognitive service; flu immunizationYes (4)Changes in physician office visits, prescriptions and charges; medical and prescription utilizations and costs; costs per prescription; healthcare utilization cost savings4 (controlled) trials
Perez A (2008) [46]22001–200516/93 (17%)USA (5), Australia (4), UK (3), Canada (3), Multicentric (1)Total sample 13,304 patients in 15 studies (median 181): requiring therapeutic monitoring; DS; with dose related problems; for flu immunization; smokers.MTM (1); therapeutic monitoring (4); DSM (9); dose optimization (1); flu immunization (1); smoking cessation (1). Median length of follow-up: 9 months.Yes (8)Changes in medical costs (most studies); adherence, knowledge and satisfaction; QALYs4 randomized trials + 1 (controlled) + 3 nonrandomized
Chisholm Burns MA (2010) [47]13Jan/091/20 (126 total) (5%)USA (1)NRDiabetes careNoChanges in HbA1c and in cholesterol
Touchette DR (2014) [48]42006–20108/25 (32%)UK (5), USA (3)Total sample 7134 patients in 7 studies (median 760): DS; requiring therapeutic monitoring > 75 years.DSM (6); therapeutic monitoring (1). Median length of follow-up: 12 months.Yes (6)Changes in no. medicines, compliance; antiplatelet drug prescribing, CV disease visits; BP, LDL-C, HDL, TG, CV rate; % patients with asthma action plans, ED visits, hospital admissions; HbA1c, LDL-C, BP, influenza vaccination rate, eye and foot exam rate; MAI score, number of drugs3 randomized + 1 multiple interrupted time series + 1 before/after
Altowaijri A (2013) [49]13Feb 20117/8 (87.5%)UK (3), Canada (2), Australia (1), Thailand (1)Total sample size NR. Patients: DS; smokers.CV: DSM (4) and CV risk smoking cessation (3). Median length of follow-up reported in 3 studies: 9 months.Yes (all)Changes in CHD patients’ outcomes; CV risk; no. quitters; HbA1c, glucose; probability of eventsMost seem to be trials (2 randomized + 1 nonrandomized, 1 controlled)
Elliott RA (2014) [24]22003–201314/31 (45%)UK (8), The Netherlands (3), USA (1), Australia (1), Canada (1)Total sample > 7000 patients in 7 studies: DS; elderly/on high no. medicines; smokers.DSM (6); MTM (8); smoking cessation (2); screening (2). Follow-up interventions in 5 studies: 6 months (2), 6–12 months (2), 1–2 years (1).Yes (13, 7 well described)Changes in adherence; prescribing errors/inappropriate prescribing; medication changes; infection, disease, quit rates); CV indicators; frequency of ED or hospital admissions; utility4 randomized + 5 cluster randomized + 1 nonrandomized + 1 multiple interrupted time series
Brown TJ (2016) [50]10May 20144/19 (21%)UK (3), Australia (1)Total sample size 2791 smokers > 21 cigarettes/day in 4 studies. Mean age 24–44. Females 54–68.7%. SES variables collected in some studies.Smoking cessation. Follow-up per patient 26 or 52 weeks. Some studies reported Stages of Change Model.Yes, usual care (advice + NRT) and other settingsQuit rate (self-reported or CO measurement or Fagerström Test)2 randomized, 1 nonrandomized
Wang Y (2016) [51]62006–201410/25 (40%)USA (7), Canada (1), Australia (1), Bulgaria (1)Total sample 1238 patients in 10 studies (median 68): diabetic patients (5 studies in type 2 diabetics).Diabetes: DSM (8); medication review (2). Median length of follow-up: 12 months.Yes (all)Changes in medical costs (healthcare use)3 randomized trials + 2 nonrandomized trials + 3 nonconcurrent cohorts + 1 retrospective cohort
Peletidi A (2016) [52]71990–20142/6 (33.3%)UK (2)Total sample 3764 in 2 studies: majority female smokers ≥ 21 cigarettes/day.Smoking cessation. Length of follow-up: 4 weeks or 12 week; measurement at 4 and at 52 weeks after quitting.Yes, self-quit rateChanges in CO-validated quitters drop in CO levels
Perraudin C (2016) [53]52004–201521/21 (100%)UK (13), The Netherlands (3), Spain (2), Belgium (1), France (1), Denmark (1)Total sample size NR. Patients: at risk of serious medication errors; elderly on multiple medicines; new to therapy; DS; with minor ailments; smokers.MTM (5); DSM (3); adherence (5); smoking cessation (5); screening (2); minor ailment (1). Follow-up 6 or 12 months.Yes, usual care. No intervention in some.Changes in QALY; score errors, healthcare resources, or disease avoided. No. patients on appropriate treatment/controlled/adherent/quitters6 randomized trials + 2 cluster randomized trials + 1 multiple interrupted time series + 1 before/after
Loh ZWR (2016) [54]5Aug 20153/25 (12%)Multicountry (1), Spain (1), Canada (1)Total sample 3992 patients in 3 economic studies: average age approx. 75.Medication review, patient education on drug-related problems. Follow-up 6 or 18 months.Yes (all)Changes in QoL. % of recommendations accepted by physicianAll 3 randomized trials (inclusion criteria)
Malet-Larrea A (2016) [55]7Sept 201513/13 (100%)Multicentric (1), UK (4), Australia (2), Canada (2), Spain (2), The Netherlands (1), Belgium (1)Total sample 11,491 in 13 studies (median: 675): new to therapy DS patients; new to therapy elderly.MTM (5); DSM (4); adherence/compliance (4). Median length of follow-up: 6 months.Yes, usual careChanges in adherence, risk/disease symptoms/severity; BP, BMI, lipids, HbA1c, PEFR; medication; use of healthcare resources; EQ-5D or other QoL; patient satisfactionAll 13 randomized trials (inclusion criteria)
Gammie T (2016) [56]62010–201510/14 (71%)UK (4), Spain (2), Brazil (2), France (1), Australia (1)Total sample size NR. Patients: DS; elderly; with medication errors; at risk of apnea; smokers.DSM (5); MTM (3); screening (1); smoking cessation (1)Yes, usual careChanges in adherence, disease/severity; clinical proxy outcomes; medication use; unscheduled use of healthcare resources; QoLNR, presumably all 10 controlled
  1. SR systematic review, CP community pharmacy, DS disease state, NR not reported, DSM disease state management, MTM medication therapy management, CV cardiovascular risk, NRT nicotine replacement therapy, BP blood pressure, TG triglycerides, ED emergency department, MAI medication appropriateness index, CHD coronary heart disease, QoL quality of life, BMI body mass index, PEFR peak expiratory flow rate