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Table 2 The outcome data of the included studies

From: Psychological interventions for alcohol use disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review

Study ID Alcohol use measure Viral load measure CD4 Adherence Risky sexual behaviour Quality of life
Aharonovich 2017 [19] Frequency (IRR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.41–1.07).
Quantity (IRR = 0.63 (95% CI = 0.36–1.11)
Chander 2015 [35] Less likely to have a drinking day (OR 0.42 (95% CI 0.23–0.75) (p = 0.005).
90-day drinking frequency in the intervention group was 4.6 [95% CI 0.9, 7.1]
Intervention effect 2.9 [95% CI 0.8, 4.4]
Odds ratio 1.30 95% CI 0.65–2.61). (OR 1.11 95% CI (0.853, 1.447) (p = .43)).
No diff.
Odds of having unprotected vaginal sex compared with the usual care group (AOR = 0.386 with 95% CI (0.156, 0.952), p = 0.041)
Dawson-Rose 2017 [40] − 1.59 (95% CI − 2.19, − 1.00)
Gilbert 2008 [25] Any drinking at 3 months RR 0.84 (0.651, 1.080) p = 0.172
Any drinking at 6 months RR 0.87 (0.666, 1.130) p = 0.291
Risk of drinking at 3 month RR 0.88 (0.628, 1.220) p = 0.432
Risk of drinking at 6 months
0.85 (0.606, 1.191) p = 0.343
Unprotected sex (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.773, 0.993, p = 0.039 at 3 months; and RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.686, 0.941, p = 0.007 at 6 months)
Hasin 2013 [26] χ2, d.f. = 9.11,2, p = 0.01)
Kahler 2018 [32] Quantity of alcohol use
Cohen’s d − 5.0 p < .001 at 6 months and − 3.3 p < 0.04 at 12 months
Frequency
d = −.42 p < 01 and .40 p < .01 at 12 months
d = .02 p = .99 at 6 months and d = − .11 p = .72 at 12 months d = −.25 p = .08 at 6 months and d = −.21 p = .15 at 12 months Condomless sex d = −.08 p = .79 at 6 months and d = −.19 p = .10
Sex under influence
d = −.04 p = .20 at 6 months and d = −.09 p = .11 at 6 months
Meade 2010 [28] Quantity (Wald χ2(4) = 10.77, p < .05)
Naar-King 2008 [39] t(48) = 1.65, p = .05 t(45) = 1.91, p = .03   t(47) = .53, p = .30
Papas 2011 [27] Percentage daily drinking (d = .95, p = .0002, mean difference = 24.93 (95% CI 12.43, 37.43)
Drinks per drinking day (d = .76, p = .002, mean difference = 2.88 (95% CI 1.05, 4.70)
Parsons 2007 [29] Standard drinks from baseline to 3 months [F(1, 112) = 62.7; p < 0.001]
6-month follow-up [F(1, 93) = 48.7; p < 0.001]
(OR = 2.7; p = 0.03) [F(1, 115) = 6.44; p < 0.02]
OR = 3.4; p = 0.013)
Percent dose adherence [F(1, 107) = 13.5; p < 0.001]
[F(1, 111) = 21.9; p < 0.001]
Rongkavilit 2013 [41] Frequency S = − 0.64, p = 0.52
S = − 0.84, p = 0.40
Quantity S = − 0.33, p = 0.74
S = − 0.79, p = 0.43
t = 0.75, p = 0.47
t = − 0.14, p = 0.89
S = − 0.85, p = 0.40
S = − 0.71, p = 0.48
Condom use t = − 0.87, p = 0.39
t = − 1.92, p = 0.06
Avoiding multiple partners
t = − 1.00, p = 0.32
t = − 1.64, p = 0.11
HIV disclosure to partners t = − 0.18, p = 0.86
t = − 0.83, p = 0.41
Rotheram-Borus 2012 [36] t = − 3.46, df = 256, p < 0.01 63% had an undetectable viral load Adherence 76%
Samet 2005 [30] No effect on frequency, quantity
p > 0.25
No effect
p > 0.25
No effect p > 0.25 No effect
p > 0.25
Samet 2015 [42] Quantity OR 1.05 (0.77, 1.43)p = 0.76
AOR 1.04 (0.77, 1.40)
p = 0.80
Frequency OR 1.00 (0.72, 1.40)
p = 0.98
AOR 1.00 (0.72, 1.39)
p = 1.00
Needle sharing OR 1.12 (0.75, 1.69) p = 0.58
AOR 1.13 (0.74, 1.73)
p = 0.56
Distributive needle sharing OR 1.18 (0.75, 1.86) p = 0.47
AOR 1.20 (0.76, 1.91)
p = 0.43
STI OR 0.65 (0.35, 1.19) p = 0.16
AOR 0.63 (0.34, 1.18) p = 0.15
Decrease in unprotected sex OR 0.91 (0.69, 1.20
p = 0.50
AOR 0.91 (0.69, 1.20)
p = 0.51
Sikkema 2011 [34] Mean diff. (MD Interv.0.17) (MD Control 0.04 (0.13) 62.1% at baseline and 57.1% at 6 months MD 0.16 (− 0.28) 0.44
Velasquez 2009 [33] (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02–1.86)
Higher number of heavy drinking days per 30-day period by a factor of 1.5 (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.08–2.10)
χ2(33, N = 216) = 67.5, p < .001
2.19 (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.17–4.11).
Wandera 2017 [43] Mean AUDIT-C difference of the differences = − 0.07, 95% CI − 0.70–0.56, p = 0.8266
Weiss 2011 [37] Miami Alcohol Use Questionnaire
(F[2486] = 3.39, p < 0.05)
Reduction significant (p < 0.01) (t[44] = 3.08, p < 0.01)   (p < 0.05)
Wong 2008 [31] (t = − 15.4, df = 935, p < 0.0001)
(alcohol and marijuana)
Liu YU 2018 [44] 23 to 9% (p = 0.001) 50 to 16% (p < 0.001)
Zule 2014 [38] (Odds ratio [OR] = 3.61; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.23, 11.70; p = 0.016)