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Table 3 PROSPERO protocols listing multiple tools by study design

From: Risk of bias tools in systematic reviews of health interventions: an analysis of PROSPERO-registered protocols

Systematic reviews of both RCT and NRS using design-specific RoB tools
N = 102
Tools planned to be used for RCT*Tools planned to be used for NRS*
ToolN (%)ToolN (%)
Cochrane RoB Tool [5]67 (65.7)Newcastle-Ottawa Scale [18]40 (39.2)
JBI Tools [15]7 (6.9)ROBINS-I [21]34 (33.3)
Cochrane RoB 2 Tool [20]5 (4.9)JBI Tools [15]9 (8.8)
Jadad Scale [19]4 (3.9)CASP Checklists [32]8 (7.8)
CASP Checklists [32]4 (3.9)NHLBI Tools [30]5 (4.9)
Cochrane EPOC [33]2 (2.0)Cochrane RoB Tool [5]3 (6.9)
NHLBI Tools [30]2 (2.0)Downs and Black [16]3 (2.9)
PEDro Scale [17]2 (2.0)STROBE Statement** [34]3 (2.9)
Downs and Black [16]2 (2.0)Cochrane RoB 2 Tool [20]2 (2.0)
Tool listed < 2 times6 (5.9)MINORS [27]2 (2.0)
Unclear/none listed3 (2.9)NICE Checklists [35]2 (2.0)
  Tool listed < 2 times6 (5.9)
  Unclear/none listed2 (2.0)
  1. Note: Tools listed only once were excluded. Unless “2” or “2.0” was specifically stated, it was assumed that the original version of the Cochrane RoB Tool was being referenced
  2. *Some protocols listed multiple tools for RCT or NRS. Proportions reflect planned use of each tool per 102 protocols
  3. **This is not a RoB tool for NRS, but was identified as such by protocol authors
  4. CASP = Critical Appraisal Skills Program; EPOC = Effective Practice and Organisation of Care; JBI = Joanna Briggs Institute; MINORS = Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies; MMAT = Mixed Methods Assessment Tool; NICE = National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; NHLBI = National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; NRS = Non-randomized study; PEDro = Physiotherapy Evidence Database; QUADAS = Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies; RCT = Randomized controlled trial; RoB = Risk of bias; ROBINS-I = Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions; STROBE = Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology