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Table 2 PROSPERO protocols with a single risk of bias tool listed

From: Risk of bias tools in systematic reviews of health interventions: an analysis of PROSPERO-registered protocols

Study designs to be included in systematic review
RCT only
N = 156
RCT and NRS
N = 163
ToolN(%)ToolN (%)
Cochrane RoB Tool [5]133 (85.2)Cochrane RoB Tool [5]58 (35.6)
PEDro Scale [17]9 (5.8)Newcastle-Ottawa Scale [18]20 (12.3)
Jadad Scale [19]4 (2.6)Downs and Black [16]14 (8.6)
Cochrane RoB 2 Tool [20]3 (1.9)ROBINS-I [21]7 (4.3)
Tool listed < 2 times7 (4.5)GRADE approach* [22]6 (3.7)
  Mixed Methods Assessment Tool [23]6 (3.7)
  Cochrane Handbook* [24]5 (3.1)
  PEDro Scale [17]5 (3.1)
  Jadad Scale [19]4 (2.5)
  McMaster Critical Review Forum [25]4 (2.5)
  EPHPP [26]3 (1.8)
  MINORS [27]3 (1.8)
  Oxford CEBM Levels of Evidence [28]3 (1.8)
  Quality Criteria Checklist: Primary Research [29]3 (1.8)
  NHLBI Pre-Post Quality Appraisal Tool [30]2 (1.2)
  QUADAS-2 [31]2 (1.2)
  Tool listed < 2 times18 (11.0)
  1. Note: Tools listed only once were excluded. Unless “2” or “2.0” was specifically stated, it was assumed that the original version of the Cochrane RoB Tool was being referenced
  2. EPHPP = Effective Public Health Practice Project tool, MINORS = Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies, NHLBI = National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NRS = non-randomized study; Oxford CEBM = Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence, PEDro = Physiotherapy Evidence Database, QUADAS = Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, RCT = Randomized controlled trial; RoB = Risk of bias; ROBINS-I = Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions
  3. +These are not RoB tools, but were identified as such by protocol authors