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Table 1. PECO table

From: Non-Interventional Factors Influencing Velopharyngeal Function For Speech In Initial Cleft Palate Repair: A Systematic Review Protocol

Criteria Description
Patients/population Any patient who has undergone cleft palate repair.
Inclusion criteria:
1. Studies with 10 or more participants
2. Human studies
3. Patients undergoing initial cleft palate repair
4. Patients with or without a syndrome; with or without a genetic anomaly
Exclusion criteria:
1. Studies containing less than 90% participants with cleft palate (with or without cleft lip)
2. Non-human studies
3. Studies with patients with isolated cleft lip only
Exposures Any exposure (or non-interventional factors) which may influence speech outcomes including gender, cleft phenotype, timing of cleft palate surgery, presence of syndrome, or Robin sequence (please see text below)
Comparison Exposures* will be compared within each sub-category, i.e. for gender, timing of surgery, cleft phenotype, presence of syndrome, or Robin sequence
Outcomes 1. The proportion of patients who had or were recommended further surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency (i.e. proportion of patients undergoing or who were recommended re-operation or speech surgery)
2. The proportion of patients with normal velopharyngeal function for speech following initial cleft palate repair
  1. *For more information please refer to the “Comparator(s)/Control” section.