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Table 1 Psychometric measures of psychological violence

From: The psychological subtype of intimate partner violence and its effect on mental health: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

# Developer Assessment Characteristics Target groups Psychometrics
1 Shepard & Campbell [29] Copyright 1992 Abusive Behavior Inventory 30-item scale with 2 subscales that measure the frequency of physical and psychological abusive behaviours. The psychological abuse subscale includes 17 items. Females with current or former intimate partners. Internal consistency: Psychological abuse = 0.88–0.92. Evidence of convergent, discriminant, criterion and factorial validity
2 Hegarty, Sheehan, and Schonfeld [30]; Hegarty, Bush, and Sheehan [31] Copyright 1999 Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) 30-item scale with 4 subscales that measure severe combined abuse, emotional abuse, physical abuse and harassment. The emotional abuse subscale includes 11 items. Females with current or former intimate partners for longer than one month. Internal consistency: Emotional abuse = 0.93. Evidence of content, construct, criterion and factorial validity
3 Sullivan and Bybee [32]; Sullivan, Parisian, and Davidson [33]; O’Leary [34] Index of Psychological Abuse 33-item scale that measures the degree to which assailants used ridicule, harassment, criticism, and emotional withdrawal. Females in dating and marital relationships. Internal consistency: 0.97
4 Rodenburg and Fantuzzo [35] Copyright 1993 Measure of Wife Abuse 60-item scale with 4 subscales that measure the frequency of physical, sexual, psychological and verbal abusive behaviours. The psychological abuse subscale includes 15 items and the verbal abuse subscale includes 14 items. Females with current or former intimate partners. Internal consistency: Total scale = 0.93 Verbal abuse = 0.83 Psychological abuse = 0.94 Evidence of convergent and factorial validity
5 Murphy and Hoover [36]; Murphy, Hoover, and Taft [37] Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse MMEA 28-item scale (reduced from 54 items) that measures restrictive engulfment, hostile withdrawal, denigration and dominance/intimidation. College students reporting on current or past dating relationships. Internal consistency: Restrictive engulfment = 0.85 Hostile withdrawal = 0.91 Denigration = 0.92 Dominance/intimidation = 0.91 Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity
6 Hudson [38] Copyright 1992 Partner Abuse Scale—Non-Physical 25-item scale that measures the magnitude of perceived nonphysical abuse received from a spouse or partner; 2 of the items assess sexual abuse. Partners in dating, cohabiting and marital relationships. Internal consistency: > 0.90. Evidence of content and factorial validity
7 Sackett and Saunders [39] Copyright 1999 Profile of Psychological Abuse 21-item scale that measures a wide variety of psychological abuse. Abused females. Internal consistency: Jealous control = 0.85 Ignore = 0.80 Ridicule traits = 0.79 Criticize behaviour = 0.75 Evidence of convergent and criterion validity
8 Tolman [40, 41] Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). 58-item scale that measures psychological maltreatment of women by their male intimate partners. Females in intimate relationships. Internal consistency: Dominance/isolation = 0.95 Emotional/verbal = 0.93 Evidence of convergent, discriminant, criterion and factorial validity
9 Tolman [41] Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI)—Short Form 14-item scale that measures psychological maltreatment of women by their male intimate partners. Females in intimate relationships. Internal consistency: Dominance/Isolation = 0.88 Emotional/verbal = 0.92 Evidence of construct, convergent and discriminant validity
10 Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, and Sugarman [42]; Straus, Hamby, and Warren [43] Copyright 2003 Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-2) 78-item scale that assesses both victimization and perpetration. The 39-item victimization scale includes 5 subscales that measure physical assault, psychological aggression, sexual coercion, negotiation and injury between partners. The psychological aggression subscale includes 8 items that assess verbal and symbolic acts that are intended to cause fear or psychological distress. Partners in dating, cohabiting and marital relationships. Internal consistency: Psychological aggression = 0.80 (Mechanic et al., 2000b); 0.82 (Lucente et al., 2001)
11 Foshee, Linder, Bauman et al. [44]; Foshee et al. [45] Safe Dates— Psychological Abuse Victimization 14-item scale that measures psychological victimization in dating relationships. Male and female students in grades 8-9. Internal consistency: 0.91.
12 Smith, Earp, and DeVellis [46]; Smith, Smith, and Earp [47]; Smith, Thornton, DeVellis, Earp, and Coker [48] Copyright 2002 Women’s Experiences with Battering (WEB) 10-item scale that measures prevalence of the battering of women. Females with current or former male intimate partners. Internal consistency: 0.91–0.99 Evidence of convergent, discriminant, and critierion validity
13 Sherin et al [49] Copyright [50] Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with Harm and Screamed (HITS) Domestic Violence Screening Tool 4-item scale with one question on physical violence and three on psychological: insult, threat, and scream. Measured on 5-point Likert scale fromNevertoFrequently”. Both male and female victims of domestic violence. Cronbachs alpha 0.85
14 Swahnberg and Wijma [51]. The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) Three-item subscale of emotional abuse (mild, moderate and severe; “No”, “Yes, as a child < 18”, “Yes, as an adult ≥ 18”, “Yes, as a child and an adult”). “Current sufferingfrom abuse measured on 11-point Likert from0 = No Sufferingto10 = Terrible Suffering”. Female experiences of physical, sexual and emotional abuse. Good validity and test-retest reliability
15 Graham-Kevan and Archer [52] Controlling Behaviors Scale-Revised (CBS-R) 24-item behavioural scale with 5 subscales; “economic abuse”, “coercion and threats”, “intimidation”, “emotional abuse”, andisolation”. Report on ones own and partners behaviour on 5-point Likert scale from0 = neverto4 = always”. Either four sub-scores or one total-score, separately for self and partner. Developed to compare across sample types for both male and female respondents. Cronbachs alpha = 0.86.
16 Follingstad, Coyne, and Gambone [53] Follingstad Psychological Aggression Scale - FPAS 17-items each representing a category of psychological violence. Items are grouped in three subscales: mild, moderate and severe. Scored on Likert scale from 1-10 fromnot psychological abuse at alltoextreme psychological abuse”. Victims of psychological abuse. Internal consistency Cronbachs alpha was 0.98 (mild, moderate and severe items: 0.92, 0.95, and 0.96).
17 Dutton, Goodman and Schmidt [54] Coercion in Intimate Partner Relationship Scale. 48-items with 9 subscales; Personal Activities/Appearances, support/social life/family, household, work/economic/resources, health, intimate relationship, legal, immigration, children/parenting. Two separate sets of 48-items for both demands made by partner to respondent and by respondent made to partner. Strong support for convergent validity and evidence of predictive validity.
18 Follingstad [55] Measure on Psychologically Abusive Behaviors (MPAB) 14-items each representing a category of psychological violence (more severe than FPAS); Items are grouped in three subscales; mild, moderate and severe. Scored on Likert scale from 1–10 fromnot a violation at alltostrong violation”. Malignant intention incorporated in questions. Usable with dating or married populations, cohabitating or non-cohabiting relationships, males or females, and heterosexual or homosexual couples. Internal consistency 0.98 (mild, moderate and severe items: 0.94, 0.94 and 0.94).
19 Rogers and Follingstad [56] Global Perceived Harm (PH) Eight-item scale measuring believed effect of partners psychological maltreatment on psychological, physical and/or daily functioning as well as negative perception of relationship and world in general. Scored on 5-point Likert scale froma littletoa lot”. A scale reflecting impacts from womens experience with battering and negative changes seen in oneself and ones relationship. Reliability statistic of 0.93.
20 Campbell, Campbell, King, Parker and Ryan [57] Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA-NP) The ISA is a 30-item abuse scale with a 19-item subscale of non-physical abuse measured on a 5-point Likert scale from1 = neverto (5 = very frequently). Clinical cut-off score for non-physical is 25. Female victims of physical and emotional abuse. Alpha coefficient 0.95.
21 Campbell et al. [58] Copyright 2004. Revised Danger Assessment (DA) Risk assessment for femicide; 20-items (both physical, sexual and psychological). Number of total “yes” answers. Female victims of severe battering. Sensitivity of R-DA ranged from 0.545 from extreme Danger level to 0.987 if increased danger was used (Mean sensitivity = 0.750 and specificity = 0.863).
  1. Psychological/Emotional Victimization Scales adapted from Thompson, Basile, Hertz and Sitterle [20] with added information in italic writing by the authors (with inspiration from Oldrup, Andersen, Kjær, Nielsen, and von Rosen [21]).