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Table 6 Summary of the range of factors assessed in reviews of stakeholders’ views of HPV vaccination communication interventions and of factors affecting the implementation of these interventions

From: Communication around HPV vaccination for adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic scoping overview of systematic reviews

Overview authors’ groupings of factors Factors as specified in reviews1 Outcomes used in quantitative studies to measure factors affecting stakeholders’ views and the implementation of HPV vaccination communication2 Reviews Number of reviews in this grouping
HPV education Knowledge [39, 48], information needs [42], HPV awareness [46], parents’ HPV-related knowledge and awareness—HPV vaccine knowledge and awareness [47], cervical cancer / HPV knowledge [47] Level of knowledge [39, 42], acceptability [46, 48], uptake [47] [39, 42, 46,47,48] 5
Health care provider influence Physician recommendation [42], provider’s influence [45], health care provider recommendation [49] Positive/negative [49], acceptability [42, 46], intention, uptake [45, 47] [42, 45,46,47, 49] 5
Perceived benefits of HPV vaccination Perceived HPV vaccine benefits [46,47,48,49] Attitudes, acceptance [46, 48], intention or uptake [49], uptake [47] [46,47,48,49] 4
Attitudes and beliefs Parents’ vaccine attitudes—HPV vaccine safety concerns [47], fear of side effects/safety [48] Acceptability [48], uptake [47] [47,48,49] 3
Anticipatory regret [46, 47] Attitudes, uptake [46, 47] [46, 47] 2
Feeling that the vaccine was not needed for various reasons [49] Positive/negative [49] [49] 1
Perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness [46] Attitudes [46] [46] 1
Fear of needles [46] Attitudes [46] [46] 1
Belief in vaccines in general Uptake [47] [47] 1
Structural barriers Vaccine cost [45,46,47, 49] Acceptability [46], intention or uptake [49], uptake [45, 47, 49] [45,46,47, 49] 4
Perceived HPV severity [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Logistical barriers [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Need for multiple shots/doses [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Acceptability Acceptability [42, 46] Level of acceptability [42, 46] [42, 46] 2
Parent’s vaccine beliefs, attitudes and intentions—intention to vaccinate child for HPV [47] Uptake [47] [47] 1
Sexual risk behavior Number of lifetime sexual partners [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Having a current sex partner [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
History of STI [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Not being sexually active [49] Positive/negative [49] [49] 1
Other risk behaviors Smoking cigarettes [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Non-receipt of hepatitis B vaccine [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Socio-demographic factors Effects of neighborhoods [45] Uptake [45] [45] 1
Acculturation (e.g., language use, origin of birth) [45] HPV vaccination [45] [45] 1
Being employed [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Educational level [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Non-white (vs white) ethnicity [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
HPV vaccine endorsements Endorsement from a governmental source [41] N/A [41] [41] 1
Partner thinks one should get the vaccine [46] Acceptability [46] [46] 1
Other Cultural sexual health values (such as social norms regarding adolescent sexuality and stigma related to sexually transmitted diseases) [45] N/A [45] [45] 1
Immigration laws [45] N/A [45] [45] 1
Mother as HPV vaccine decision-maker (vs both parents) [47] Uptake [47] [47] 1
Social norms [49] Intention or uptake [49] [49] 1
  1. 1Not all reviews in each group assessed all factors
  2. 2Not all reviews in each group assessed all outcomes