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Table 1 Table of reviews excluded from data synthesis due to important methodological limitations

From: Communication around HPV vaccination for adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic scoping overview of systematic reviews

Review Methodological limitations (criterion number1) Geographic settings of the included studies
Allen et al., 2010 [9] Twelve minor limitations (2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16) U.S. (41 studies), Australia (5), Belgium (3), Brazil (2), Canada (n = 4), Columbia (n = 1), Finland (n = 1), Germany (n = 1): Hong Kong (n = 2), Iceland (n = 1), Mexico (n = 2), Netherlands (n = 1), Sweden (n = 1), Turkey (n = 1), UK (n = 10), and Vietnam (n = 1). Not specified: 2
Brewer et al., 2007 [10] One major limitation (9). Ten minor limitations (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15). USA
Catalan-Matamoros et al., 2017 [11] One major limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16). Print media: US (n = 27), UK (n = 5), Canada (n = 8), Australia (n = 3), Israel (n = 1), Panama (n = 1), India (n = 1), China (n = 1), and Iran (n = 1). Television: US (n = 9). Radio: Australia (n = 1). Combination of media: US (n = 4) and Italy (n = 1)
Chan et al., 2012 [12] One major limitation (9). Eleven minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15). Studies were conducted in Asia (n = 11), North America (n = 15), UK (n = 2), Europe (n = 6), and Australia (n = 2)
Crocker-Buque et al., 2017 [13] One major limitation (9). Seven minor limitations (3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15). US (n = 31), UK (n = 5), Canada (n = 3) and Australia (n = 2)
Cunningham et al., 2014 [14] One major limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15). SSA: Botswana (1), South Africa (2), Nigeria (2), Kenya (3), Ghana (1), Uganda (1), Mali (1), Zambia (1), Tanzania (1) and Malawi (1)
Das et al., 2016 [15] One major limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15). HICs.
Francis et al., 2017 [16] One major limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16). USA
Galbraith et al., 2016 [17] One major limitation (9). Eight minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14). N/R2
Gilkey et al., 2016 [18] One major limitation (9). Eight minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14). N/R2
Holman et al., 2014 [19] Two major limitations (4, 9). Nine minor limitations (1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14). N/R2
Hyde et al., 2012 [20] One major limitation (9). Eleven minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16). 97 (75%) were from high-income countries, 21 (16%) were from middle-income countries, and 4 (3%) were from low-income countries.
Kabakama et al., 2016 [21] One major limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13). 37 low- and middle-income countries
Karafillakis et al., 2017 [22] One major limitation (9). Eleven minor limitations (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14). The majority of articles included were from the UK (35.2%), the Netherlands (11.7%), France (11.7%), Germany (8.3%), Greece (7.6%), and Sweden (6.2%).
Kessels et al., 2012 [23] Eight minor limitations (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 16). Mostly USA
Loke et al., 2017 [24] Two major limitations (9, 13). Seven minor limitations (2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 15). Information only provided for 28 studies. Geographic settings such as countries or cities: 17, secondary schools: 4, unspecified schools: 4, health center or community clinic: 3, colleges: 1. One study had both random digit dialing as their study setting for mothers and schools for adolescents as their setting.
Mishra, 2011 [25] Two major limitations (9, 13). Eight minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 16). N/R2
Niccolai et al., 2015 [26] One major limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14). USA
Paul et al., 2014 [27] Two major limitations (4, 9). Eight minor limitations (2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 16). Seventeen countries from Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, Latin America, and North America are represented
Perlman et al., 2014 [28] One major limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14). Cameroon: 5. Nigeria: 5. South Africa: 4. Tanzania: 4. Uganda: 3. Kenya: 2. Botswana: 1. Ghana: 1. Lesotho: 1. Mali: 1. Rwanda: 1. Zambia: 1. Zimbabwe: 1
Rosen et al., 2018 [29] One minor limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15). USA
Ryan et al., 2018 [30] One major limitation (9). Eight minor limitations (2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 13, 16). Appalachian states and also all states including Appalachian regions (USA)
Small et al., 2014 [31] One major limitation (9). Nine minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14). USA
Smulian et al., 2016 [32] Two major limitations (4, 9). Ten minor limitations (2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15). N/R2
Walling et al., 2016 [33] One major limitation (11). Seven minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14). N/R2
Wigle et al., 2013 [34] One major limitation (9). Ten minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14). Items identified by the search included studies and experiences from individual countries (Peru, Vietnam, Uganda, India, Rwanda, Ghana, Tanzania, Malaysia, Indonesia, Kenya, Bhutan, Bolivia, Cambodia, Haiti, Lesotho and Nepal) and broad world regions.
Young, 2010 [35] One major limitation (9). Eight minor limitations (2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16). The 18 articles selected for inclusion in this review represent nine countries. Australia (n = 6) and China (n = 4) accounted for over half of the studies; India, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam were also represented.
  1. 1As numbered in Additional file 4 which lists the criteria for assessing the reliability of reviews, adapted from AMSTAR 2
  2. 2N/R: not reported