Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Modifiable prognostic factors evaluated by included reviews

From: Pragmatic methods for reviewing exceptionally large bodies of evidence: systematic mapping review and overview of systematic reviews using lung cancer survival as an exemplar

Author, year* REV ID Patient population PF code Description Study design Evaluable studies Sample size range Summary measure Pooled analysis Narrative synthesis***
Patient characteristics
 Carter, 2014 5362 NSCLC (III–IV) BMI Less weight loss or normal BMI Retrospective 21 NS NS   + in 11 studies; <> in 10 studies
 Berghmans, 2011 8434 NSCLC (III) BMI Body mass index NS NS NS NS   + in 1 study; <> NS
 Berghmans, 2011 8434 NSCLC (III) Weight loss Weight loss (no further details) NS NS NS NS   + in 5 studies; <> NS
 Brundage, 2002 1051 NSCLC (early) Weight loss No substantial weight loss NS 6 55–207 NS   <> in 6 studies
 Aboshi, 2014** 182 NSCLC (late) PS Percentage of patients in study with ECOG PS1 < 60 (vs ≥ 60) Prospective 13 39–1217 OR <>  
 Berghmans, 2011 8434 NSCLC (III) PS Good performance status NS NS NS NS   + in 13 studies; <> NS
 Brundage, 2002 1051 NSCLC (early) PS High performance status NS 13 69–408 NS   + in 4 studies; <> in 9 studies
 Carter, 2014 5362 NSCLC (III–IV) PS Better PS, ECOG 0-1/KPS < 70 (vs ≥ 2, or vs ≥ 80) Retrospective 47 NS NS   + in 36 studies; <> in 11 studies
 Berghmans, 2011 8434 NSCLC (III) QoL Quality of life (no further details) NS NS NS NS   + in 1 study; <> NS
 Montazeri, 2009** 703 mxdC (LC) QoL Pre-treatment (baseline) quality of life NS 26 30–651 NS   + in 24 studies; <> in 2 studies
 Montazeri, 2009** 703 mxdC LC (NSCLC) Qol Pre-treatment (baseline) quality of life NS 11 30–573 NS   + in 10 studies; <> in 1 study
 Montazeri, 2009** 703 mxdC LC (SCLC) Qol Pre-treatment (baseline) quality of life NS 1 70 NS   <> in 1 study
 Carter, 2014 5362 NSCLC (III–IV) QoL Better pre-treatment health related QoL/fewer symptoms Retrospective 6 NS NS   + in 6 studies
 Berghmans, 2011 8434 NSCLC (III) Smoking status Smoking (no further details) NS NS NS NS   + in 1 study; <> NS
 Brundage, 2002 1051 NSCLC (early) Smoking status Smoking habit (no further details) NS 23 50–593 NS   + in 2 studies; <> in 21 studies
 Florou, 2014** 51 mxdC LC (limited SCLC) Smoking status Non-smoker—during treatment (vs smoker) Retrospective 1 215 NS   + in 1 study
 Florou, 2014** 51 mxdC LC (limited SCLC) Smoking status Ex-smoker—at or after diagnosis (vs current smoker) Prospective 1 284 NS   + in 1 study
 Florou, 2014** 51 mxdC LC (early NSCLC) Smoking status Ex-smoker—quit smoking before diagnosis (vs current smoker or never smoked) Prospective 1 543 NS   <> in 1 study;
 Florou, 2014** 51 mxdC LC (early NSCLC/limited SCLC) Smoking status Never smoked (vs ex- or current smoker) Prospective 2 284–238 NS   <> in 1 study; + in 1 study
 Parsons, 2010 695 NSCLC (mainly I–IIIA) Smoking status Continued smoking after diagnosis (vs quit smoking) in NSCLC Mixed 4 93–311 HR <> (unadj); − (adj, n=1)  
 Parsons, 2010 695 SCLC (mainly limited) Smoking status Continued smoking after diagnosis (vs quit smoking) in SCLC Retrospective 2 70–611 HR  
 Carter, 2014 5362 NSCLC (III–IV) Smoking status Less/no smoking status Retrospective 9 NS NS   + in 6 studies; <> in 3 studies
Healthcare provider and system
 Slatore, 2010** 621 LC Insurance status Medicaid (vs private, non-Medicaid, or other funded) NS 4 3702–13,469 HR/OR   − in 4 studies
 Slatore, 2010** 621 LC (NSCLC) Insurance status Commercial or other insurance (vs private insurance) NS 2 336–1403 HR/OR   <> in 2 studies
 Slatore, 2010** 621 LC Insurance status Medicaid/Medicare (vs Medicare) NS 2 3094–26,073 HR   − in 2 studies
 Slatore, 2010** 621 LC (NSCLC) Insurance status Medicaid/Medicare (vs Medicare) NS 1 3,094 HR   − in 1 study
 Slatore, 2010** 621 LC Insurance status Medicare HMO (vs Medicare Fee for Service) NS 1 10,229 HR   <> in 1 study
 Prades, 2015** 5807 mxdC (NSCLC) MDT MDT patient management Prospective 1 NS Survival rate   + in 1 study
 von Meyenfeldt, 2012** 414 LC Procedural volume High hospital annual volume of surgical resections (vs low volume)—post-operative mortality NS 11 (10 in MR) 987–90,088 OR + + in 6 studies; <> in 5 studies
 von Meyenfeldt, 2012** 414 LC Procedural volume High hospital annual volume of surgical resections (vs low volume)—overall survival NS 8 (7 in MR) 1097–40,754 HR <> + in 5 studies; − in 1 study; <> in 2 studies
 von Meyenfeldt, 2012** 414 LC Procedural volume High annual surgeon procedural volume (vs low volume)—post-operative mortality NS 2 4841–24,092 HR <> + in 2 studies
 von Meyenfeldt, 2012** 414 LC Surgeon Surgeon specialty: general thoracic surgeon (vs general surgeon)—post-operative mortality NS 3 19,745–86,538 HR + + in 1 study; <> in 2 studies
 von Meyenfeldt, 2012** 414 LC Surgeon Surgeon specialty: general thoracic surgeon (vs general surgeon)—overall survival NS 2 1097–19,745 OR <> + in 1 study; <> in 1 studies
 von Meyenfeldt, 2012** 414 LC Surgeon Surgeon specialty: cardiothoracic surgeon (vs general surgeon)—post-operative mortality NS 3 19,745–86,538 OR + + in 1 study; <> in 2 studies
 von Meyenfeldt, 2012** 414 LC Surgeon Surgeon specialty: cardiothoracic surgeon (vs general surgeon)—overall survival NS 2 1097–19,745 HR   + in 1 study; <> in 1 studies
 Olsson 2009 722 LC Timeliness of care Shorter intervals to diagnosis or treatment Mixed 15 NS NS   − in 4 studies; <> in 8 studies; + in 3 studies
 Neal, 2015 8441 mxdC (LC) Timeliness of care Shorter diagnostic interval: time from first seen in primary care to diagnosis Mixed 4 122–378 NS   <> in 3 studies; + in 1 study
 Neal, 2015 8441 mxdC (NSCLC) Timeliness of care Shorter treatment interval: time from first seen in primary care to treatment Retrospective 2 415–495 NS   <> in 1 study; − in 1 study
 Neal, 2015 8441 mxdC (NSCLC) Timeliness of care Shorter patient interval: time from symptom onset to first seen in primary Retrospective 2 122–7358 NS   <> in 1 study; − in 1 study
 Neal, 2015 8441 mxdC (LC) Timeliness of care Shorter time from symptom onset to diagnosis Retrospective 1 NS (total 566) NS   + in 1 study
 Neal, 2015 8441 mxdC (LC) Timeliness of care Shorter time from symptom onset to treatment Retrospective 1 NS (total 103) NS   <> in 1 study
 Neal, 2015 8441 mxdC (NSCLC) Timeliness of care Shorter time from symptom onset to being seen in specialist care Retrospective 1 NS (total 415) NS   <> in 1 study
Clinical characteristics or routinely assessed biological variables
 Christopoulos, 2013** 5789 LC TB Active tuberculosis, TB (vs no TB) Retrospective 5 NS Median survival   − 1 in study; ? in 4 studies (no comparative data)
 Buttigliero, 2011 494 mxdC LC VitD level Low serum vitamin D level Prospective 2 294–447 HR   <> in 2 studies
 Ashworth, 2014** 105 NSCLC (oligometastatic) Stage IB (vs IA) Prospective 20 6–262 HR <>  
 Ashworth, 2014** 105 NSCLC (oligometastatic) Stage IIA (vs IA) Prospective 20 6–262 HR <>  
 Ashworth, 2014** 105 NSCLC (oligometastatic) Stage IIB (vs IA) Prospective 20 6–262 HR − (unadj)  
 Ashworth, 2014** 105 NSCLC (oligometastatic) Stage IIIA (vs IA) Prospective 20 6–262 HR − (unadj)  
 Ashworth, 2014** 105 NSCLC (oligometastatic) Stage IIIB (vs IA) Prospective 20 6–262 HR − (unadj)  
 Ashworth, 2013** 237 NSCLC (oligometastatic) Stage Stage I (vs III or IV) Mixed 5 NS NS   + in 1 studies; <> in 4 studies
 Aboshi, 2014** 182 NSCLC (late) Stage Percentage of patients in study with stage IV disease < 80 (vs ≥ 80) Prospective 13 39–1217 OR <>  
 Salah, 2012** 467 NSCLC (solitary met) Stage Intra-thoracic stage III (vs stage II or I) Retrospective 36 NS HR  
 Deghaidy 2005** 923 LC (NSCLC) Stage Stage I vs II (in NSCLC) Mixed 10 23–226 RR + + in 5 studies; <> in 5 studies
 Deghaidy 2005** 923 LC (SCLC) Stage Stage I vs II (in SCLC) Mixed 4 24–295 RR + + in 3 studies; <> in 1 study
 Deghaidy 2005** 923 LC (NSCLC) Stage Stage I vs III (in NSCLC) Mixed 7 33–1342 RR + + in 4 studies; <> in 3 studies
 Deghaidy 2005** 923 LC (SCLC) Stage Stage I vs III (in SCLC) Mixed 3 27–92 RR + + in 2 studies; <> in 1 study
 Deghaidy 2005** 923 LC (NSCLC) Stage Stage II vs III (in NSCLC) Mixed 7 57–961 RR + + in 3 studies; <> in 4 studies
 Deghaidy 2005** 923 LC (SCLC) Stage Stage II vs III (in SCLC) Mixed 3 25–95 RR + <> in 3 studies
 Deghaidy 2005** 923 LC (NSCLC) Stage Stage III vs IV (in NSCLC) Mixed 6 21–2198 RR + + in 3 studies; <> in 3 studies
 Deghaidy 2005** 923 LC (SCLC) Stage Stage III vs IV (in SCLC) Mixed 2 22–319 RR <> <> in 2 studies
 Carter, 2014 5362 NSCLC (III–IV) Stage Less advanced stage, mainly IIIB (vs IV) Retrospective 37 NS NS   + in 21 studies; <> in 16 studies
 Behera, 2016** 5815 NSCLC (I) Stage Adenocarcinoma in situ, AIS (vs minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, MIA) NS 11 8–110 Survival rate <>  
 Berghmans, 2011 8434 NSCLC (III) Stage Less advanced stage NS NS NS NS   + in 6 studies; <> NS
 Brundage, 2002 1051 NSCLC (early) Stage Less advanced stage NS 103 31–593 NS   + in 68 studies; <> in 35 studies
 Berghmans, 2011 8434 NSCLC (III) T volume Tumour volume NS NS NS NS   + in 2 studies; <> NS
 Yu, 2015** 5489 NSCLC (unresectable) GTV Small gross tumour volume, GTV < 112 cm3vs (vs large GTV >= 112cm3) NS 5 32–115 HR +  
Prognostic factors classified as ‘other’
 Ashworth, 2014 105 NSCLC (oligometastatic) Surgical treatment Surgical primary LC treatment (vs non-surgical) Prospective 20 6–262 HR + (unadj)  
 Ashworth, 2013 237 NSCLC (oligometastatic) Surgery Type of thoracic resection: lobectomy (vs pneumonectomy) Mixed 2 NS NS   + in 1 studies; <> in 1 studies
 Berghmans, 2011 8434 NSCLC (III) Surgery R0 (complete resection) NS NS NS NS   + in 4 studies; <> NS
 Brundage, 2002 1051 NSCLC (early) Surgery Surgical procedure (no further details) NS 15 43–593 NS   + in 4 studies; <> in 11 studies
  1. *Three reviews which evaluated ‘any’ prognostic factor included a minimum of 50 factors: Ashworth, 2013 (237); Berghmans, 2011 (8434); and Brundage, 2002 (1051). Beghmans, 2011, (which included 39 studies) provided a list of factors found to be significant in multivariate analysis, but did not indicate the number of studies that had evaluated each factor; the description of each factor was also minimal. For Berghmans, 2011 (8434), only factors found to be significant by included studies (reporting multivariate analysis) were listed with minimal descriptors; the total number of studies which evaluated each factor was not reported. Brundage, 2002 (1051), included separate analysis for studies that investigated prognostic factors in resected NSCLC. The description of the prognostic factors were minimal and are reported verbatim here (not stated what the comparator was)
  2. **The actual results for these studies are presented in Additional file 8 (Appendix H)
  3. ***Narrative synthesis reported by the review
  4. REV ID review unique identification number, BMI body mass index, GTV gross tumour volume, HR hazard ratio, LC lung cancer, MR-meta regression, MDT multidisciplinary team, mxdC mixed cancer, NS not stated, NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer, OR odds ratio, PS performance status, RR relative risk, SCLC small cell lung cancer, TB tuberculosis, vs versus