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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Health, not weight loss, focused programmes versus conventional weight loss programmes for cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Included studies Location Age (years)
Mean (SD)
BMI (kg/m2)
Mean (SD)
Men
(n)
Women
(n)
Methods Participants Intervention Attrition
Ash et al., 2006 [32] Brisbane, Australia 48 (13) 34 (5.5) 47 129 Randomisation: number table.
Allocation concealment unclear.
Weekly follow- up for 8 weeks, monthly for 6 months, final 12 month follow-up.
Inclusions: BMI > 27
Exclusions: Co-morbidities, non-English speakers, Cognitively impaired.
HNWL (Fat Booters Incorporated (FBI)): n = 57
CWL (individualised Dietetic Treatment (IDT)) : n = 65
Control group (Information Booklet only (BO): n = 54
Delivered by dietitians and nutrition experts
ITT analysis use of generalised estimating equations.
Attrition(at 12 months):
FBI: 54%
CWL : 32%
BO: 63%
Bacon et al., 2005 (Bacon et al., 2002)[25] California, USA 40.7 36.3 0 78 Randomisation: stratified by BMI, eating behaviour and physical activity level.
Allocation concealment not recorded.
12, 24, 42 and 104 weeks follow-up.
Inclusions: Dietary restraint>15
BMI > 30
Age 35-40
Exclusions:
Co-morbidities
Smokers
Not Caucasian
HNWL (HAES): n = 39
Delivered by counsellors and those with doctorates
CWL (LEARN): n = 39
Delivered by dietitians
No ITT analysis
Attrition (at 24 months):
HAES: 8%
LEARN: 42%
Crerand et al., 2007 [33] (Wadden et al., 2004) [34] Philadelphia, USA, 44.2 35.9 0 123 Randomisation and allocation concealment unclear.
Weekly group session for 20 weeks, biweekly weeks 20-40. Week 65 follow-up
Inclusion:
BMI 30-43 kg/m2
Exclusion:
Co-morbidities
lost > 5 kg or used weight loss medications in past 6 months
HNWL (non-dieting approach (ND)): n = 39
CWL (balanced-deficit diet (BDD)) : n = 43
MR (meal replacement plan): n = 41
Delivered by qualified clinical psychologist and registered dietitian
ITT analysis, last observation carried forward with assumed weight gain and sensitivity analysis
Attrition (at week 65):
ND: 74%
BDD: 60%
MR: 68%
(Keller, 1999) [35] Goodrick et al, 1998 [36]   40 33 0 219 Randomisation and
allocation concealment unclear.
24 weeks of weekly treatment followed by 26 biweekly meetings for 12 months
Inclusion:
Female
Age 25–50
14 to 41kgs overweight
Exclusions:
Registered with a weight loss programme
Co-morbidities
Smoker
HNWL (Non-diet treatment (NDT)): n = 78
CWL (dieting treatment (DT)): n = 79
Waitlist control (WLC): n = 62
Delivered by instructors, a registered dietitian and a qualified psychotherapist specialised in eating disorders.
ITT analysis was carried out with baseline values carried forward and sensitivity analysis
Attrition (at 18 months):
NDT: 21%
DT: 18%
WLC: 6 % (6 months)
Mensinger et al., 2009 [37] (Mensinger, Calogero, and Tylka, 2016) [38] Pennsylvania, USA 39.6 38 0 80 Computer generated randomisation.
Allocation concealment using sealed opaque envelopes labelled with the sequential randomisation numbers.
6 and 24 month follow-up
Inclusion:
Women aged 30–45
BMI 30–45
Physically inactive
Pre-menopausal
Exclusion:
current smokers, did not speak fluent English
Co-morbidities
HNWL (HUGS) n = 40
CWL (LEARN) n = 40
Delivered by trained group facilitator
ITT with SPSS MIXED and restricted maximum likelihood
Attrition (24 months):
(HUGS): 53%
(LEARN): 48%
Rapoport, Clark and Wardle, 2000 [23] London, UK 47.5 35.3 0 84 Randomisation and
allocation concealment unclear.
10 sessions. 6 and 12 month follow-up.
Inclusion:
age18–65
BMI > 28
approved by their GP for treatment
Exclusion:
involved with any other weight management programme
Co-morbidities
HNWL (Modified cognitive-behavioural treatment)
n = 37
CWL (cognitive behavioural treatment)
n = 38
Delivered by
Clinical psychologist, exercise specialist, dietitian, health psychologist trained in CBT methods.
No ITT analysis was reported
Attrition (at 12 months f-up):
Modified cognitive-behavioural treatment: 16%
Cognitive behavioural treatment: 16%
Sbrocco et al., 1999 [39] Maryland, USA 41.3 32.6 0 24 Randomisation and
allocation concealment unclear.
13 weekly sessions post treatment
3, 6 and 12 months follow up
Inclusion:
Healthy (GP verified)
Exclusion:
Lost >4.5 kg in previous month or > 9 kg previous 6 month
Smoker
HNWL (behavioural choice treatment (BCT)): n = 12
CWL (Traditional Behaviour Treatment (TBT)) : n = 12
Delivered by :
Clinical social worker/psychologist, or a psychology graduate
No ITT analysis
Attrition(at 12 months f-up):
BCT: 8%
TBT: 0%
Tanco, Linden and Earle, 1999 [40] Vancouver, Canada, British Columbia Age > 19 39.6 0 62 Randomisation and allocation concealment unclear
12 weeks treatment with 6 months follow up
Inclusion:
women > 19
BMI > 30 kg/ m2
3 weight cycles over at least 10 years
Exclusion:
Co-morbidity which would disallow increased physical activity.
HNWL (Cognitive treatment (CT)): n = 21
CWL (Standard behavioural weight management program (BT)): n = 21
Wait-list control group: n = 20
Delivered by psychology graduates
No ITT analysis
Attrition (at 6 month f-up):
CT: 57%
BT: 43%
Wait-list control group: 60%