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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Health, not weight loss, focused programmes versus conventional weight loss programmes for cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Included studies Location Age (years) Mean (SD) BMI (kg/m2) Mean (SD) Men (n) Women (n) Methods Participants Intervention Attrition
Ash et al., 2006 [32] Brisbane, Australia 48 (13) 34 (5.5) 47 129 Randomisation: number table. Allocation concealment unclear. Weekly follow- up for 8 weeks, monthly for 6 months, final 12 month follow-up. Inclusions: BMI > 27 Exclusions: Co-morbidities, non-English speakers, Cognitively impaired. HNWL (Fat Booters Incorporated (FBI)): n = 57 CWL (individualised Dietetic Treatment (IDT)) : n = 65 Control group (Information Booklet only (BO): n = 54 Delivered by dietitians and nutrition experts ITT analysis use of generalised estimating equations. Attrition(at 12 months): FBI: 54% CWL : 32% BO: 63%
Bacon et al., 2005 (Bacon et al., 2002)[25] California, USA 40.7 36.3 0 78 Randomisation: stratified by BMI, eating behaviour and physical activity level. Allocation concealment not recorded. 12, 24, 42 and 104 weeks follow-up. Inclusions: Dietary restraint>15 BMI > 30 Age 35-40 Exclusions: Co-morbidities Smokers Not Caucasian HNWL (HAES): n = 39 Delivered by counsellors and those with doctorates CWL (LEARN): n = 39 Delivered by dietitians No ITT analysis Attrition (at 24 months): HAES: 8% LEARN: 42%
Crerand et al., 2007 [33] (Wadden et al., 2004) [34] Philadelphia, USA, 44.2 35.9 0 123 Randomisation and allocation concealment unclear. Weekly group session for 20 weeks, biweekly weeks 20-40. Week 65 follow-up Inclusion: BMI 30-43 kg/m2 Exclusion: Co-morbidities lost > 5 kg or used weight loss medications in past 6 months HNWL (non-dieting approach (ND)): n = 39 CWL (balanced-deficit diet (BDD)) : n = 43 MR (meal replacement plan): n = 41 Delivered by qualified clinical psychologist and registered dietitian ITT analysis, last observation carried forward with assumed weight gain and sensitivity analysis Attrition (at week 65): ND: 74% BDD: 60% MR: 68%
(Keller, 1999) [35] Goodrick et al, 1998 [36]   40 33 0 219 Randomisation and allocation concealment unclear. 24 weeks of weekly treatment followed by 26 biweekly meetings for 12 months Inclusion: Female Age 25–50 14 to 41kgs overweight Exclusions: Registered with a weight loss programme Co-morbidities Smoker HNWL (Non-diet treatment (NDT)): n = 78 CWL (dieting treatment (DT)): n = 79 Waitlist control (WLC): n = 62 Delivered by instructors, a registered dietitian and a qualified psychotherapist specialised in eating disorders. ITT analysis was carried out with baseline values carried forward and sensitivity analysis Attrition (at 18 months): NDT: 21% DT: 18% WLC: 6 % (6 months)
Mensinger et al., 2009 [37] (Mensinger, Calogero, and Tylka, 2016) [38] Pennsylvania, USA 39.6 38 0 80 Computer generated randomisation. Allocation concealment using sealed opaque envelopes labelled with the sequential randomisation numbers. 6 and 24 month follow-up Inclusion: Women aged 30–45 BMI 30–45 Physically inactive Pre-menopausal Exclusion: current smokers, did not speak fluent English Co-morbidities HNWL (HUGS) n = 40 CWL (LEARN) n = 40 Delivered by trained group facilitator ITT with SPSS MIXED and restricted maximum likelihood Attrition (24 months): (HUGS): 53% (LEARN): 48%
Rapoport, Clark and Wardle, 2000 [23] London, UK 47.5 35.3 0 84 Randomisation and allocation concealment unclear. 10 sessions. 6 and 12 month follow-up. Inclusion: age18–65 BMI > 28 approved by their GP for treatment Exclusion: involved with any other weight management programme Co-morbidities HNWL (Modified cognitive-behavioural treatment) n = 37 CWL (cognitive behavioural treatment) n = 38 Delivered by Clinical psychologist, exercise specialist, dietitian, health psychologist trained in CBT methods. No ITT analysis was reported Attrition (at 12 months f-up): Modified cognitive-behavioural treatment: 16% Cognitive behavioural treatment: 16%
Sbrocco et al., 1999 [39] Maryland, USA 41.3 32.6 0 24 Randomisation and allocation concealment unclear. 13 weekly sessions post treatment 3, 6 and 12 months follow up Inclusion: Healthy (GP verified) Exclusion: Lost >4.5 kg in previous month or > 9 kg previous 6 month Smoker HNWL (behavioural choice treatment (BCT)): n = 12 CWL (Traditional Behaviour Treatment (TBT)) : n = 12 Delivered by : Clinical social worker/psychologist, or a psychology graduate No ITT analysis Attrition(at 12 months f-up): BCT: 8% TBT: 0%
Tanco, Linden and Earle, 1999 [40] Vancouver, Canada, British Columbia Age > 19 39.6 0 62 Randomisation and allocation concealment unclear 12 weeks treatment with 6 months follow up Inclusion: women > 19 BMI > 30 kg/ m2 3 weight cycles over at least 10 years Exclusion: Co-morbidity which would disallow increased physical activity. HNWL (Cognitive treatment (CT)): n = 21 CWL (Standard behavioural weight management program (BT)): n = 21 Wait-list control group: n = 20 Delivered by psychology graduates No ITT analysis Attrition (at 6 month f-up): CT: 57% BT: 43% Wait-list control group: 60%