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Table 1 Social norms BCTs for inclusion in the review

From: The impact of social norms interventions on clinical behaviour change among health workers: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Name and Definition from BCT Taxonomy [17] SOCIAL review name and definition
6.2. Social Comparison  Draw attention to others’ performance to allow comparison with the person’s own performance. Note: being in a group setting does not necessarily mean that social comparison is actually taking place.  Example: Show the doctor the proportion of patients who were prescribed antibiotics for a common cold by other doctors and compare with their own data. 6.2. Social Comparison—unchanged
6.3. Information about others’ approval  Provide information about what other people think about the behaviour. The information clarifies whether others will like, approve or disapprove of what the person is doing or will do.  Example: Tell the staff at the hospital ward that staff at all other wards approve of washing their hands according to the guidelines. 6.3. Information about others’ approval—unchanged
9.1. Credible source  Present verbal or visual communication from a credible source in favour of or against the behaviour. Note: code this BCT if source generally agreed on as credible, e.g. health professionals, celebrities or words used to indicate expertise or leader in field and if the communication has the aim of persuading.  Example: Present a speech given by a high status professional to emphasise the importance of not exposing patients to unnecessary radiation by ordering X-rays for back pain. 9.1. Credible source—unchanged
10.4. Social reward  Arrange verbal or non-verbal reward if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes ‘Positive reinforcement’).  Example: Congratulate the person for each day they eat a reduced fat diet. 10.4. Social reward—changed Arrange praise, commendation, applause or thanks if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes ‘Positive reinforcement’). Example: Arrange for a family doctor to be sent a thank you note for each week that they reduce their level of antibiotic prescribing. Reason for change: the definition of social reward as ‘verbal or non-verbal reward’ is insufficient to distinguish a ‘social’ reward from other types of reward. Further, in the present study, we are interested in only those social rewards that rely on social norms. Praise, commendation, applause or thanks are all injunctive norms messages, providing the target with information about the values, beliefs or attitudes of the reference group, conveying social approval or disapproval.
10.5 Social incentive  Inform that a verbal or non-verbal reward will be delivered if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes ‘Positive reinforcement’).  Example: Inform that they will be congratulated for each day that they eat a reduced fat diet. 10.5 Social incentive—changed Inform that praise, commendation, applause or thanks will be delivered if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour (includes ‘Positive reinforcement’). Example: Promise a family doctor in advance that they will be sent a thank you note for each week that they reduce their level of antibiotic prescribing. Reason for change: the definition of social reward as ‘verbal or non-verbal reward’ is insufficient to distinguish a ‘social’ reward from other types of reward. Further, in the present study, we are interested in only those social rewards that rely on social norms. Praise, commendation, applause or thanks are all injunctive norms messages, providing the target with information about the values, beliefs or attitudes of the reference group, conveying social approval or disapproval.