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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effect of mobile text message reminders on routine childhood vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis

S. no Author (year) Country Study design Study participants/setting Population (I, C) Interventions/control Follow-up periods Outcome measure Event among intervention Event among control
1 Bangure et al. (2013) Zimbabwe RCT Women who delivered were recruited into the study at 4 Kadoma city clinics in Mashonal and West province of Zimbabwe 304 (152, 152) SMS reminders were sent at 6, 10, and 14 weeks on 7, 3, and 1 day before vaccination due dates. Control group received routine care. 14 weeks Immunization coverage at 6, 10, and 14 weeks 144/152 114/152
2 Schmidt et al. (2012) USA RCT Parents of newborns being discharged from a local hospital who intended to seek child health care at the university-sponsored pediatric resident and faculty clinic 68 (28, 40) A text message reminder sent 7 days prior to vaccination schedules. Control group received standard notifications. 7 months Receipt of vaccinations due at 2, 4, 6 months of age 22/28 31/40
3 Dini et al. (2000) USA RCT Households in the Denver metropolitan area whose children had received the first dose of DTP and/or poliovirus vaccines 960 (440, 520) Reminder messages sent on due dates of vaccination. Control group has no notifications. 24 months Vaccination series completion at 24 months of age 217/440 213/520
4 Haji et al. (2014) Kenya RCT Children < 12 months of age who were brought to the selected vaccinating health facilities in the three districts of Machakos, Langata and Njoro for their first dose of pentavalent vaccine 744 (372, 372) Text reminders sent 2 days before and on the day of the scheduled Vaccination due date. Control group received routine reminder. 14 weeks Receipt of scheduled vaccines at 10 and 14 weeks 359/372 309/372
5 Eze GU et al. (2015) Nigeria Parallel group RCT Paired child-caregivers were followed-up at 8 health facilities in an urban/sub-urban area in South Nigeria 905 (452, 453) A text message reminder sent a day before the due date. Control group received routine care. 18 weeks DPT3 Coverage at 18 weeks 312/452 273/453
6 Niederhauser et al. (2015) USA RCT The study enrolled parent/infant dyads recruited from a large federally qualified health center, a Women, Infants and Children clinic, a private pediatric clinic and at the Honolulu Baby Expo 42 (19, 23) Text message sent 4 weeks and 2 weeks prior to the due date for the infant’s 2, 4, and 6-month vaccinations. Control group received routine care. 7 months 5 vaccines (DTaP, HepB, HIB, PCV, and polio) complete coverage at specific ages by group 7/19 15/23
7 Domek et al. (2016) Guatemala Pilot RCT Infants aged 8–14 weeks presenting for the first dose of the primary immunization series at two public health clinics were enrolled 321 (160, 161) SMS text messages at 6, 4, and 2 days before the next scheduled date for visits 2 and 3. 7 months Completing all (pentavalent, pneumococcal, polio, and rotavirus) vaccines 130/160 122/161
8 Gibson et al. (2017) Kenya Clustered RCT Villages were randomly and evenly allocated. Caregivers were eligible if they had a child younger than 5 weeks who had not yet received a first dose of pentavalent vaccine 748 (388, 360) SMS reminders sent 3 days and the day before vaccination visits at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and at 9 months. Control group with no SMS service. 12 months Full coverage (BCG, three doses of polio, three doses of pentavalent and measles) 332/388 296/360
9 Hofstetter et al. (2015) USA RCT Parents of 9.5–10.5-month-old children from four urban academically affiliated pediatric clinics 1368 (686, 682) Text reminder sent 2 days before the schedule. Control arm with usual care. 13 months MMR vaccination by 13 months 263/686 270/682
10 Stockwell et al. (2012) USA RCT Four community-based clinics in the USA 5165 (2576, 2589) Text message reminders sent a month before due date. Control received usual care. 12 months Receipt of an influenza vaccine 1316/2576 1202/2589
  1. I intervention, C control