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Table 3 Evidence synthesis

From: Medication adherence influencing factors—an (updated) overview of systematic reviews

Factor Relationship
Indication/therapy Effect direction Evidence for effect
Social and economic Education Parkinson disease O
Chronic pain ? O
Hepatitis C O
HIV
Oral anti-cancer agents O
? O
Cardiovascular conditions +
O
? O
Employed Hepatitis C O
Inflammatory arthritis ? O
HIV +
Cardiovascular conditions O
O
? O
Ethnic status Hepatitis C ? O
Others > African American O
Inflammatory arthritis White > others +
HIV White > Black +
Oral anti-cancer agents White > Black O
White > Asian
White > Hispanic
White > non-White O
African American > others O
Non-White > others O
Cardiovascular conditions White > others ++
Non-Asian > Asian O
Major ethnic groups > ethnic minorities +
Financial status/income Parkinson disease O
Hepatitis C O
Chronic conditions +
Oral anti-cancer agents +
Cardiovascular conditions O
? O
Socioeconomic status Inflammatory arthritis O
Oral anti-cancer agents ? O
O
Cardiovascular conditions +
Married/not living alone Parkinson disease O
Inflammatory arthritis O
Chronic conditions ? O
HIV O
Oral anti-cancer agents O
O
?
Cardiovascular conditions O
? O
Social support Inflammatory arthritis O
Oral anti-cancer agents ? O
O
Cardiovascular conditions O
O
Therapy related Duration of therapy Oral anti-cancer agents
? O
1 year > 3 or 5 years
More than 2 years > 0–2 years
Frequency of intake Parkinson disease O
Inflammatory arthritis ? O
Cardiovascular conditions ? O
Number of pills taken per day Cardiovascular conditions ? O
Number of tablets Oral anti-cancer agents ? O
2 > 1 O
Different medications Parkinson disease O
Chronic pain O
O
Inflammatory arthritis O
Oral anti-cancer agents O
O
? O
Cardiovascular conditions +
? O
Taking medication at meals Oral anti-cancer agents O
Disease related Duration of disease Chronic pain ? O
Hepatitis C O
Inflammatory arthritis
Oral anti-cancer agents
O
?
Cardiovascular conditions O
O
?
Patient related Age (years) Parkinson disease +
Chronic pain O
Hepatitis C ? O
Inflammatory arthritis O
55–64 > others O
Chronic conditions O
O
65 and older > younger than 65 O
HIV 18–40 < age more than 41 O
Age less than 45 vs. more than 45 +
Oral anti-cancer agents Middle age > very old (≥ 75) > young (≤ 45) +
Middle age (41–60) > others O
Less than 45 < others O
Less than 46 or more than 85 > others O
 
O
? O
  O
Cardiovascular conditions O
+
   ? O
≤ 55 < others O
≤ 55: NR O
> 60 > others O
35–56 > others  
  O
Comorbidity Inflammatory arthritis O
Oral anti-cancer agents Charlson comorbidity index: ↑ O
 
  O
Comorbidity (physical) Hepatitis C O
? O
Chronic conditions O
Cardiovascular conditions O
O
O
Comorbidity (mental) Parkinson disease O
Hepatitis C +
O
O
? O
Chronic conditions O
Cardiovascular conditions +
O
? O
Comorbidity (depression) Oral anti-cancer agents +
HIV +
Cardiovascular conditions ++
Gender (female) Chronic pain O
Hepatitis C O
O
? O
Inflammatory arthritis O
O
Chronic conditions O
? O
Oral anti-cancer agents O
O
? O
Cardiovascular conditions +
? O
O
Health care system related Co-payments Inflammatory arthritis +
Chronic conditions +
Not restricted ++
Oral anti-cancer agents Less than US$10 > more than US$10 O
O
O
Cardiovascular conditions +
No > yes +
Yes > no O
US$0 > US$1 to US$9 +
US$0 > US$10 to US$29 +
Medication costs Inflammatory arthritis O
Oral anti-cancer agents O
Health insurance Chronic conditions O
Cardiovascular conditions O
? O
  1. Effect direction. positive effect on adherence, negative effect on adherence, inconsistent effect direction, ? effect direction not or unclearly reported, ++ robust evidence for an impact, + some evidence for an impact, − probably no impact, O uncertain impact