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Table 3 Prevalence of contaminants within well water in surveys of well water owners

From: Factors influencing perceptions of private water quality in North America: a systematic review

Study Contaminant Proportion of participants exceeding MAC
Pieper et al. [33] Arsenic 0.10%
Cadmium 0.60%
Chromium 0.00%
Fluoride 0.40%
Nitrate 1.30%
Total coliform 46%
E. coli 10%
Copper 12%
Lead 19%
Aluminium 3.80%
Chloride 0.20%
Copper 15%
Iron 8.00%
Manganese 10.00%
pH 26%
Silver 0.00%
Sulphate 2.40%
TDS 10%
Zinc 3.10%
Walker et al. [39] Arsenic N/A (did not present proportion who actually exceeded MAC)
Poe et al. [31] Nitrate 18%
Lothorp et al. [51] Aluminium 31.30%
Arsenic 37.50%
Iron 6.25%
Lead 6.25%
Antimony 6.25%
Water Hardness N/A
Postma et al. [34] Total coliform 18%
E. coli < 1%
Nitrates 2%
Lead 0%
Copper 0%
Arsenic 6%
Fluoride 2%
Synthetic organic chemicals 6%
Slotnick et al. [69] Arsenic 25.30%
Hexemer et al. [72] Bacteriological (E. coli and total coliforms) 15.40%
Nitrates 25.30%
Tabbot et al. [71] Total coliform 14%
Nitrates 58%
Volatile organic compounds 26%
Hardness 28%
Swistock et al. [73] Total coliform 33%
E. coli 14%
pH 20%
Lead 12%
Nitrates 2%
Arsenic 2%
Triazane < 1%
Strauss et al. [36] Total coliform 17.10%
E. coli 9.50%
Yu et al. [76] Arsenic 4.50%
Kite-Powell et al. [70] Nitrates 55%* (during the two periods of data collection)
Lewandowski et al. [32] Nitrates 10%* (based on well type)
Levallois et al. [42] Nitrates 6%