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Table 2 Factors with evidence to support a relation to length of stay

From: Factors associated with length of stay in care homes: a systematic review of international literature

Predictors Lowest ratio Highest ratio Strong evidence Moderate evidence Weak evidence
Care home characteristics—nursing 1.14 (1.01–1.30) HR (CI) 1.85 (1.50–2.23) OR (CI) X   
Clinical intervention—oxygen therapy 1.6 (1.4–1.8) HR (CI) 2.61 (1.30–5.21) OR (CI) X   
Shortness of breath 1.5 (1.3–1.9) HR (CI) 4.88 OR X   
Age 0.70 (0.53–0.93) OR (CI) 3.25 (2.39–4.41) HR (CI)   X  
Cancer 1.36 (1.21–1.53) HR (CI) 374 (174–804) OR (CI)   X  
Contact with primary care—number of contacts 1.65 (1.43–1.92) HR (CI) 1.90 (1.2–3.2) HR (CI)   X  
Gender—being femalea 0.49 (0.36–0.66) HR (CI) 2.10 (1.22–3.60) RR   X  
General health 0.609 (0.416–0.891) HR (CI) 16.18 (11.41–22.95) HR (CI)   X  
Mobility 0.93 (0.84–1.02) RR (CI) 4.6 (2.3–12.7) OR (CI)   X  
Nutrition—low BMI or malnutrition 0.81 (0.57–1.16) HR (CI) 2.26 (1.56–3.28) RR (CI)   X  
Physical functioning 0.23 (0.10–0.50) HR (CI) 8.0 (2.2–47.8) OR (CI)   X  
Pressure ulcers 1.03 (1.00–1.06) HR (CI) 2.7 (1.37–5.1) OR (CI)   X  
Admission source—hospital 0.81 (0.43–1.52) HR (CI) 2.02 (1.2–3.3) HR (CI)    X
Behaviour problems 0.90 (0.78–1.05) RR (CI) 3.95 OR    X
Biochemical indicators 0.19 (0.10–0.36) HR (CI) 3.207 (1.023–0.060) OR (CI)    X
Cognitive function 0.8 OR 10.5 (1.02–1.08) HR (CI)    X
Dementia or Alzheimer’s disease 0.48 (0.52–1.05) OR (CI) 1.96 (1.86–2.06) IRR (CI)    X
Depression 0.91 (0.82–1.01) RR (CI) 1.26 (1.00–1.58) HR (CI)    X
Diabetes 0.99 (0.88–1.12) HR (CI) 3.789 (1.266–1.336) OR (CI)    X
Ethnicity—whitea 0.69 (0.57–0.85) RR (CI) 0.89 (0.76–1.06) RR (CI)    X
Falls and fracturesa 0.40 (0.21–0.74) OR (CI) 1.2 OR    X
Feeding—appetite 1.39 (1.37–1.41) OR (CI) 2.16 (1.59–2.93) HR (CI)    X
Feeding—feeding tube or help with feeding or diet 0.53 (0.31–0.90) HR (CI) 4.05 (1.40–1.73) HR (CI)    X
Hallucinations, delusions, wandering or delirium 0.74 (0.77–1.15) RR (CI) 2.97 (1.50–5.88) RR    X
Incontinence or catheter use 0.93 RR 3.2 (1.46–7.2) OR (CI)    X
Marital status—not married a 0.90 (0.78–1.05) RR (CI) 1.31 (1.09–1.59) RR (CI)    X
Respiratory disorders/COPD 1.17 (1.04–1.33) HR (CI) 3.4 (1.3–8.8) OR (CI)    X
Stroke 0.79 (0.33–0.70) OR (CI) 1.79 (1.68–1.90) IRR (CI)    X
Vaccinationsa 0.439 (0.208–0.924) HR (CI) 0.47 (0.28–0.78) OR (CI)    X
Vision impairment 0.94 (0.84–1.05) RR (CI) 1.38 (1.20–1.57) RR (CI)    X
  1. Combined results of evidence rating for each factor identified: strong, moderate, weak and inconclusive evidence
  2. aAssociated with longer length of stay