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Table 2 Characteristics of excluded studies (randomized controlled trials)

From: Social marketing including financial incentive programs at worksite cafeterias for preventing obesity: a systematic review

Characteristic Study 1 Study 2 Study 3
Reference no. 36 37 38, 39
Author Lachat et al. French et al. French et al., French et al.
Year 2009 2001 2010, 2010
Reason for exclusion Participants were not only employees but also university students Participants were not only worksite employees but also secondary school students Interventions included fitness facility environmental interventions or physical activity enhancement like yoga or walking class interventions.
Country Belgium USA: Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minneapolis USA: Metropolitan Minneapolis-St Paul area
Type of study RCT RCT Cluster RCT
Participants Regular (i.e., at least 3 meals/week) customers of a university cafeteria, essentially students and university staff Secondary schools (adolescents) and worksites (adults) Transportation workers (n = 190,488)
Total study population (I/C) 209 (104/105), 156 (84/72) Secondary school: N = 12, Worksite: N = 12  
Sex 36% male ? 79% male
Age Mean (SD): 22.8 (3.5) years ? 19–79 years
Intervention duration 3 weeks 12 months 18 months
Follow-up    2 years
Intervention program One portion of vegetables and two portions of fruit for free at lunchtime. The overall design:
Two kinds of setting: worksite and school
Three levels of pricing: discounts of 10%, 25%, and 50% for low-fat snacksTwo levels of promotion: only label, label with sign
・Lower prices for healthy vending machine choices with 10% discount
・Low-priced fruit available from farmers’ markets held 1 day/month
・Availability (50% healthy foods; the goal of the vending machine intervention was to ensure 50% of the available vending machine offerings met healthy food criteria)
・Physical activity enhancement and fitness facilities, yoga
・Group behavioral programs (calculating calories)
・Advisory groups based at the workplace
・Self-weighing team competition
Control program No intervention Pricing: equal pricePromotion: no labels and no signs Control group
ITT* ITT analysis: 209  156 ? Pre-post: 78%74%
Outcome Secondary outcomes:
・Fruit (g)
・Vegetables (g)
・Energy intake (kJ)
・Energy density (kJ/100 g)
・Energy from fat (%)
・Na (mg)
Secondary outcome: Low-fat snack sale data (%) Primary outcome:
・BMI, weight change
Secondary outcomes:
・Sugar-sweetened beverages
・Fruit and vegetables (SV/day)
・Snacks, sweets (SV/day)
・Energy (kcal/day)
・Vending machine use
  1. *Intention-to-treat test (ITT): Intervention consisting of financial incentive program versus no financial incentive program
  2. RCT randomized controlled trial, I/C intervention/control, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, SV serving, Na sodium