|P—population||Implementation studies of SMS programs targeted to adult cancer populations (age 18 and over) at any stage of the cancer trajectory (treatment, post-treatment survivorship, palliative or end of life care).|
Any implementation intervention study that focused on, or incorporated strategies to support self-management and delivered as part of routine clinical service or in a community agency or organization. SMS program targeting patients and/or providers and/or changes in the delivery system in the context of cancer care.|
Study design: Implementation studies that include a range of methodologies: population-level randomized controlled trials or cluster trials, quasi-experimental prospective studies, retrospective controlled studies, interrupted time series, controlled before and after studies, case-control, uncontrolled before and after studies, observational studies, qualitative studies of implementation processes or strategies or factors enabling or hindering implementation.
|C—comparator||Any comparator such as usual care or other intervention if relevant.|
|O—outcomes||Outcomes of interest are not restricted but could include (self-management/self-care behaviors/healthy lifestyle behaviors, symptoms, emotional distress or adjustment (depression/anxiety), quality of life, patient experience, self-efficacy/mastery, survival, empowerment, health care use and/or costs, biological markers of disease, and process or implementation outcomes (clinicians’ knowledge and skills, attendance at education sessions, change in care delivery processes as per EPOC).|
|H—healthcare context||Any health care setting that provides care to cancer populations; hospital, ambulatory or outpatient care, community services or organizations, primary care practices, remote (telehealth or other web-based designs).|
Non-empirical sources, i.e., opinion papers, book chapters, guidelines, or editorials.
Efficacy trials of self-management interventions in cancer that are not focused on implementation.
Self-management interventions and/or programs that do not include at a minimum guided support to patients in the development of core skills and/or strategies to support change in behaviors to manage problems or adjust to cancer; or focus only on management of comorbidities.
Patient education programs or interventions that do not emphasize patient acquisition of skills for self-management.
Papers or studies not published in English.