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Table 3 Eligibility criteria based on PICOH acronym

From: Implementation of self-management support in cancer care and normalization into routine practice: a systematic scoping literature review protocol

Inclusion criteria
 Term Definition
  P—population Implementation studies of SMS programs targeted to adult cancer populations (age 18 and over) at any stage of the cancer trajectory (treatment, post-treatment survivorship, palliative or end of life care).
  I—intervention Any implementation intervention study that focused on, or incorporated strategies to support self-management and delivered as part of routine clinical service or in a community agency or organization. SMS program targeting patients and/or providers and/or changes in the delivery system in the context of cancer care.
Study design: Implementation studies that include a range of methodologies: population-level randomized controlled trials or cluster trials, quasi-experimental prospective studies, retrospective controlled studies, interrupted time series, controlled before and after studies, case-control, uncontrolled before and after studies, observational studies, qualitative studies of implementation processes or strategies or factors enabling or hindering implementation.
  C—comparator Any comparator such as usual care or other intervention if relevant.
  O—outcomes Outcomes of interest are not restricted but could include (self-management/self-care behaviors/healthy lifestyle behaviors, symptoms, emotional distress or adjustment (depression/anxiety), quality of life, patient experience, self-efficacy/mastery, survival, empowerment, health care use and/or costs, biological markers of disease, and process or implementation outcomes (clinicians’ knowledge and skills, attendance at education sessions, change in care delivery processes as per EPOC).
  H—healthcare context Any health care setting that provides care to cancer populations; hospital, ambulatory or outpatient care, community services or organizations, primary care practices, remote (telehealth or other web-based designs).
Exclusion criteria
 Non-empirical sources, i.e., opinion papers, book chapters, guidelines, or editorials.
 Efficacy trials of self-management interventions in cancer that are not focused on implementation.
 Self-management interventions and/or programs that do not include at a minimum guided support to patients in the development of core skills and/or strategies to support change in behaviors to manage problems or adjust to cancer; or focus only on management of comorbidities.
 Patient education programs or interventions that do not emphasize patient acquisition of skills for self-management.
 Papers or studies not published in English.