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Table 4 Quality rating of the included studies according to Effective Public Health Practice Project’s Qualitative Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies

From: Evidence of past dental visits and incidence of head and neck cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Overall quality assessment Selection bias Study design Confounders Blinding Data collection Withdrawals and drop outs
Chen et al. [44] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 1
Mazul et al. [34] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Hashim et al. [20] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Laprise et al. [45] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 1
Friemel et al. [21] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Dholam and Chouksey [46] Strong 1 2 2 2 1 2
Bertl et al. [31] Moderate 2 3 2 2 2 2
Huang J et al. [47] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Tsai et al. [48] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Ahrens et al. [22] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Narayan et al. [49] Weak 3 3 3 2 1 3
Moergal et al. [23] Moderate 3 2 2 2 1 2
Eliot et al. [35] Strong 1 2 1 1 1 2
Chang et al. [50] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Langevin et al. [4] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Frydrych et al. [53] Moderate 3 2 2 2 2 2
Groome et al. [3] Strong 2 1 1 2 2 2
Macfarlane et al. [24] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Johnson et al. [36] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Divaris et al. [18] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Watson et al. [1] Moderate 3 2 2 2 2 2
Marques et al. [39] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Guha et al. [40] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Rosenquist et al. [56] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Guneri et al. [26] Moderate 1 2 2 2 1 2
Lissowska et al. [27] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Gellrich et al. [32] Weak 1 3 1 3 1 1
Balram et al. [52] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Garrote et al. [41] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 1
Winn et al. [42] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Moreno-Lopez et al. [54] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 2
Talamini et al. [28] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Bundgaard et al. [29] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 1
Lockhart et al. [38] Weak 3 3 2 2 2 2
Maier et al. [30] Moderate 3 2 2 2 1 2
Marshall et al. [37] Moderate 3 2 1 2 1 2
Zheng et al. [51] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 1
Franco et al. [43] Strong 1 2 1 2 1 2
Elwood et al. [2] Strong 2 2 1 2 1 1