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Table 3 Background characteristics and data collection from the other design studies

From: Evidence of past dental visits and incidence of head and neck cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Region Time frame of study Design of study Gender Age, years (average, mean with standard deviation or range) Cancer outcome with subsite Case definition No of Cases Sample population Frequency of dental visits Quality assessment
Bertl et al. [31] Austria 2013 Cross-sectional M + F > 18 HNCs (oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx) Patients from outpatient cancer clinics 48 Tertiary hospital < 12 months or ≥ 12 months Moderate
Langevin et al. [4] Greater-Boston 2006–2011 Case-series M + F ≥ 18 OCs (tongue, salivary gland, gum, mouth), oropharynx and hypopharynx Incident cases 441 Teaching hospital At least annual, infrequent, rare or never Strong
Frydrych et al.[53] Western Australia 2005–2009 Retrospective observational study of medical records M + F Average age for M = 59 and for F = 60 OCs (lip, tongue, gum, mouth, palate) tonsil and oropharynx Incident cases 127 Teaching hospital Time (months) since the patient’s last dental visit and regularity of attending dental appointments Moderate
Watson et al. [1] Florida NG Cross-sectional M + F 60 (13.2) OCs (lip, oral cavity) or oropharynx Incident cases 131 Two tertiary care centres Within preceding 12 months, more than 12 months ago Moderate
Lockhart et al. [38] United States NG Screening M + F 17–86 HNCs (not defined) NG 131 HNC clinic Emergency dental care, annually, regularly or twice yearly Weak
Gellrich et al. [32] Europe NG Retrospective observational study of medical records M + F Average age of M = 58.2, F = 62.6 OCs (floor of the mouth, tongue, gingiva, non-specified sites for oral cancer, excluding lip) Incident cases 1543 Oral and maxillofacial surgery departments Quarterly, annually, twice a year, every 2 years, less than every 2 years Weak