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Table 2 Table of critical confounders developed for a systematic review of studies assessing the association of dairy intake with cardiovascular outcomes

From: The risk of bias in observational studies of exposures (ROBINS-E) tool: concerns arising from application to observational studies of exposures

Outcome Confounders (p/h) Confounders (all outcomes)
1. CVD mortality Fibre supplement (p) Red meat (h) Sodium (Na+) (h) Age Sex BMI Smoking Alcohol intake History of co-morbidities Parenteral/Fhx MI < 60 years PA levels SES Total energy intake Fruit and vegetable intake Specialised confounders Hormone therapy
2. CVD events Fibre supplement (p) Magnesium supplement (p)
3. CHD mortality Fibre supplement (p) Trans fat (h) Polyunsaturated fat (n-6) (p) Sodium (+Na) (h)
4. CHD events Fibre supplement (p) Trans fat (h) Magnesium supplement (p) Polyunsaturated fat (n-6) (p)
5. Total MI Aspirin (p) Vitamin E supplement (p)
6. Fatal MI Vitamin E supplement (p)
7. Non-fatal MI Aspirin (p)
8. Total stroke Potassium supplement (p) Red meat (h) Sodium (+Na) (h)
9. Ischemic stroke Aspirin (p) Polyunsaturated fat (LC n-3) (p) Red meat (h)
10. Haemorrhagic stroke Aspirin (h)
  1. p protective, h harmful