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Table 2 Table of critical confounders developed for a systematic review of studies assessing the association of dairy intake with cardiovascular outcomes

From: The risk of bias in observational studies of exposures (ROBINS-E) tool: concerns arising from application to observational studies of exposures

Outcome Confounders (p/h) Confounders (all outcomes)
1. CVD mortality Fibre supplement (p)
Red meat (h)
Sodium (Na+) (h)
Alcohol intake
History of co-morbidities
Parenteral/Fhx MI < 60 years
PA levels
Total energy intake
Fruit and vegetable intake
Specialised confounders
Hormone therapy
2. CVD events Fibre supplement (p)
Magnesium supplement (p)
3. CHD mortality Fibre supplement (p)
Trans fat (h)
Polyunsaturated fat (n-6) (p)
Sodium (+Na) (h)
4. CHD events Fibre supplement (p)
Trans fat (h)
Magnesium supplement (p)
Polyunsaturated fat (n-6) (p)
5. Total MI Aspirin (p)
Vitamin E supplement (p)
6. Fatal MI Vitamin E supplement (p)
7. Non-fatal MI Aspirin (p)
8. Total stroke Potassium supplement (p)
Red meat (h)
Sodium (+Na) (h)
9. Ischemic stroke Aspirin (p)
Polyunsaturated fat (LC n-3) (p)
Red meat (h)
10. Haemorrhagic stroke Aspirin (h)
  1. p protective, h harmful