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Table 5 Inclusion/exclusion criteria for objective 2 (to develop a kidney-specific program theory about use of PROs in nephrology that may enhance person-centered care by testing and refining the theory through a realist synthesis of the empirical literature)

From: Strategies for incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the care of people with chronic kidney disease (PRO kidney): a protocol for a realist synthesis

Inclusion Exclusion
(Must include 1, 2, and 3 and must include 4 or 5 or 6) (Must exclude at least one of 1 or 2 or 3)
1. Source focused on nephrology population (e.g., patients [adults, pediatrics, transplant, CKD patients of all forms] and/or practitioners).
2. Source types: All study designs and other discourses, such as theoretical discussions, literature reviews, editorials, or guidelines, surrounding use of PROs in clinical nephrology practice.
3. Source written in English.
4. Use of PROs in individual clinical nephrology practice.
5. Evidence on the use of aggregate PRO information for micro-, meso-, or macro-levels in nephrology.
6. Involve a formal or substantive theory, mid-range theory, theoretical/conceptual framework, or model on PROs use in clinical nephrology practice or for healthcare administration purposes.
1. The source is focused on exploring, evaluating, or reviewing psychometric properties of PRO use in nephrology (e.g., validity, reliability).
2. The source is focused on development of new PRO.
3. The source is focused on reporting findings in which a PRO is used as a research tool (e.g., an evaluation of an intervention, a study exploring the health-related quality of life of specific populations).
  1. In review of this literature, we will ask the question, “Does this provide any evidence, discussion, or conceptual/theoretical perspectives to test and refine our initial program theories for PRO use to enhance person-centered nephrology care at individual and/or aggregate levels?”