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Table 3 Inclusion/exclusion criteria for objective 1 (to understand theories that explain how PROs are used)

From: Strategies for incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the care of people with chronic kidney disease (PRO kidney): a protocol for a realist synthesis

Inclusion Exclusion
(Must include 1 below and must include either 2 or 3 or 4 or 5)
1. All PRO measures (e.g., healthcare provider outcomes, quality of care outcomes) either at individual (patients, healthcare providers) OR aggregate (system e.g., use of the PRO information for quality improvement purposes) levels, OR healthcare experience measures.
2. The main focus of the study is to include a formal or substantive theory, mid-range theory, theoretical/conceptual framework, or model on the use of PROs that describes how individual/aggregate PROs are intended to work.
3. The main focus of the study is to review/provide ideas about how individual/aggregate PRO use is intended to work or provides a critique of the ideas underlying how individual/aggregate PRO use is intended to work.
4. The main focus of the study is to provide stakeholder accounts or opinions of how individual/aggregate PRO use does OR does not work.
5. The main focus of the study is to outline, discuss, or review potential unintended consequences of individual/aggregate PRO use.
1. Articles not written in English.
2. The main focus of the paper is to report findings in which a PRO is used as a research tool [e.g., an evaluation of an intervention, a study exploring the health-related quality of life of specific populations, a study focuses mainly on the statistical analysis].
3. The main focus of the paper is to focus on evaluating the psychometric properties of a PRO or on reviewing the psychometric properties of a PRO or a collection of PROs.
4. The paper’s main focus is to provide advice or recommendations about which PRO to use in a research context.
  1. During screening, the following criteria were applied. We asked the question, “Does this provide theoretical explanation about how PROs are used at an individual or aggregate level?”