|Checklist (author, year)||Checklist criteria|
Issues [for clinicians to consider when applying study findings to their context]|
(1) Are there pathophysiologic differences in the illness under study that may lead to a diminished treatment response?
(2) Are there patient differences that may diminish the treatment response?
Social and economic
(3) Are there important differences in patient compliance that may diminish the treatment response?
(4) Are there important differences in provider compliance that may diminish the treatment response?
(5) Do my patients have comorbid conditions that significantly alter the potential benefits and risks of the treatment?
(6) Are there important differences in untreated patients’ risk of adverse outcomes that might alter the efficiency of treatment?
The following five questions can guide how to assess whether the findings from a systematic review are applicable to a specific setting.|
1. Were the studies included in a systematic review conducted in the same setting or were the findings consistent across settings or time periods?
2. Are there important differences in on-the-ground realities and constraints that might substantially alter the feasibility and acceptability of an option?
3. Are there important differences in health system arrangements that may mean an option could not work in the same way?
4. Are there important differences in the baseline conditions that might yield different absolute effects even if the relative effectiveness was the same?
5. What insights can be drawn about options, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation?