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Table 1 Summary of interventions reporting on process

From: Interventions integrating health and academic interventions to prevent substance use and violence: a systematic review and synthesis of process evaluations

Intervention name Description of intervention Location Targeted grade of participants Process data collected on Report
Reading Writing, Respect and Resolution (4Rs) A literacy-based social-emotional learning curriculum for elementary school students. There are two components: (1) a seven-unit, 21–35 lesson literacy-based curriculum in conflict resolution and social-emotional learning for children in primary school (to grade five); and (2) intensive professional development for teachers. USA Kindergarten to grade 5 Fidelity and acceptability Sung [39]
DRACON This intervention uses drama to develop cognitive understanding of conflict and bullying and to empower students to manage their own conflict, both personally and within the broader school community. Australia Primary and secondary school students Implementation, mechanisms of change, acceptability and context O’Toole [37]
English classes (no name) Teachers were trained and, working in pairs in the summer, they developed integrated health/English material, with a specific emphasis on the prevention of drug and alcohol use. USA Grades 8 and 9 Fidelity, acceptability, quality and mechanisms of change Holcomb and Denk [43]
Hashish and Marijuana The goal of the curriculum is to develop scientific knowledge of hashish and marijuana and to strengthen students’ problem-solving and decision-making skills through both didactic and participatory learning approaches. Israel Upper secondary school Implementation Zoller and Weiss [40]
Infused-Life Skills Training (I-LST) A substance abuse prevention and competency curriculum that focuses on social and psychological protective factors affecting substance use. It is integrated into the existing subject curriculum by the classroom teachers. USA Middle/junior high school Fidelity, quality, dose and acceptability Bechtel et al. [42]
Kids, Adults Together (KAT) The intervention aims to reduce drinking and antisocial behaviours in young people through a classroom curriculum, a parent evening and follow-up family activities. UK Grades 5 and 6 Acceptability and satisfaction Rothwell and Segrott [33]
Fidelity, reach and mechanisms of change Segrott et al. [44]
Peaceful Panels Throughout art classes, students participated in anti-bullying lessons (from the Second Step programme for eighth grade students on empathy and communication in handling a grievance) and comic-making lessons. They then prepared artwork to demonstrate their understanding of how to resolve conflict. USA Grades 8 and 9 Acceptability and satisfaction Wales [45]
Positive Action Positive Action is a social-emotional and character development intervention aimed at encouraging positive behaviours through positive thoughts and actions. Lessons cover six units: self-concept; positive actions for mind and body; positive social-emotional actions; managing oneself; being honest with oneself; and continually improving oneself. USA Kindergarten to grade 12 Coverage and acceptability Beets [31, 32]
Acceptability and satisfaction Beets [32]
USA Implementation, fidelity, dosage and quality Malloy et al. [41]
Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) An intervention to reduce conflict by improving students’ social-emotional and thinking skills through a curriculum, the establishment of a positive classroom environment and generalised positive social norms throughout the school environment. USA Kindergarten to grade 5 Quality, coverage (dose) and context Ransford et al. [38]
Roots of Empathy An intervention that brings a visiting baby and their parent into a classroom as a springboard for learning empathy. Students learn messages of social inclusion, respect, how to build consensus, how to contribute to a safe and caring classroom and develop emotional literacy. Australia Grades 1–9 Implementation, mechanisms of change and acceptability Cain and Carnellor [34]
Canada Implementation and context Hanson [30]
Steps to Respect This is an anti-bullying intervention with both school-wide and classroom components. The School-wide components create new disciplinary policies for bullying and improve monitoring of and intervention in bullying. Classroom curricula positive social norms and improve social–emotional skills for better engagement with bullying. USA Grades 3–6 Fidelity, context and acceptability Low et al. [36]
The Gatehouse Project Through teaching a curriculum and establishing a school-wide adolescent health team, Gatehouse aims to: build a sense of security and trust in students; enhance skills and opportunities for good communication; and build a sense of positive regard through participation in school life. Australia Grade 8 Coverage, quality and mechanisms of change Bond et al. [35]