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Table 4 Calculated weighted mean differences for reported heart rate (bpm)

From: Resting blood pressure reductions following handgrip exercise training and the impact of age and sex: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

  Young (< 55 years) Aged (> 55 years)  
Men
n = 83
+ 0.1 bpm (n = 11) [60]
0 bpm (n = 11) [58]
− 4 bpm (n = 14) [59]
+ 1 bpm (n = 13) [40]
− 2 bpm (n = 12) [51]
+ 2 bpm (n = 8) [42]
+ 1 bpm (n = 14) [53]
Weighted mean (young and aged men): − 0.59 bpm
Weighted mean: − 0.86 bpm (n = 49) Weighted mean: − 0.18 bpm (n = 34)  
Women
n = 65
−1 bpm (n = 12) [38]
0 bpm (n = 11) [38]
+ 14 bpm (n = 1) [42]
− 3 bpm (n = 13) [40]
− 1.1 bpm (n = 17) [49]
0 bpm (n = 11) [53]
Weighted mean (young and aged women):− 0.86 bpm
Weighted mean: − 1.0 bpm (n = 37) Weighted mean: − 0.67 bpm (n = 28)  
Men + Women
n = 130 (at least 47 women)
− 2 bpm (n = 8) [57]
0 bpm (n = 10) [57]
0 bpm (n = 10, 4 women) [61]
0 bpm (n = 10, 4 women) [61]
− 1 bpm (n = 9) [56]
− 0.7 bpm (n = 11, 4 women) [48]
− 2 bpm (n = 9, 4 women) [43]
− 2 bpm (n = 13, 2 women) [47]
0 bpm (n = 12, 6 women) [45]
+ 2 bpm (n = 18, 11 women) [41]
− 1 bpm (n = 20, 12 women) [41]
 
Weighted mean: − 0.53 bpm (n = 47) Weighted mean: − 0.43 bpm (n = 83)  
  Weighted mean (young men and women): − 0.59 bpm Weighted mean (aged men and women): − 0.33 bpm  
  1. Italicized values represent statistically significant reductions, as per either the original published results or the data provided directly by authors. Decimal places as per the original published results or the data provided directly by authors
  2. If the authors published the phrase “non-significant changes” in their reported [57, 36] then a value of “0” was entered and analyzed