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Table 2 Methodological quality and applicability assessment of the included studies (using QUADAS-2 guidelines)

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy of detection of any level of diabetic retinopathy using digital retinal imaging

Domains Risk of bias Applicability concerns
Study Patient selection Index test Reference standard Flow and timing Patient selection Index test Reference standard
 1. Ahmed, J. et al. 2006 Low Low Low High High Low Unclear
 2. Aptel, F. et al. 2008 Low Low Low Unclear Low Low Low
 3. Baeza, M. et al. 2009 High Low Low Low Low Low Low
 4. Boucher, M. C. et al. 2003 Low Low Low High High High Low
 5. Ding, J. et al. 2012 Low Low Low Low Low High Low
 6. Hansen, A. B. et al. 2004 High Low Low Low Low Low Low
 7. Henricsson, M. et al. 2000 Low Low Low Unclear Low Low Low
 8. Herbert, H. M. et al. 2003 Low Low Low Low Low High Low
 9. Ku, J. J. et al. 2013 Low Low Low Unclear High Low Low
 10. Kuo, H. K. et al. 2005 Low Low Low Low High Low Low
 11. LopezBastida, J. et al. 2007 Low Low Low Unclear Low Unclear Low
 12. Maberley, D. et al. 2002 Low Low Low Low High High Low
 13. Massin, P. et al. 2003 Unclear Unclear Low Low High High Low
 14. Murgatroyd H et al. 2003 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
 15. Neubauer, A. S. et al. 2008 Low Low Low Unclear Low Low Low
 16. Olson, J. A. et al. 2003 Unclear Low Low Unclear Low Low Low
 17. Phiri, R. et al. 2006 Unclear Low Low Low Low High Low
 18. Scanlon, P. H. et al. 2003 Low Low Low Low High High Low
 19. Scanlon, P. H. et al. 2003_(2) Low Low Low Low Low High Low
 20. Suansilpong, A et al. 2008 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
 21. Sundling, V. et al. 2013 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
Studies excluded in meta-analysis
 22. Bhargava, M. et al. 2012 High High High Unclear Low High Low
 23. Mizrachi, Y. et al. 2014 High High High High High High Low
 24. Perrier, M. et al. 2003 High Low Low High High High Low
 25. Schiffman, R.M. et al. 2005 Low High High Unclear Low High High
 26. Tu, K.L. et al. 2004 High High High Low Low High Low