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Table 4 Subgroup analyses of 24 observational studies on the association between diabetes mellitus and multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients co-morbid with diabetes mellitus

From: Association between diabetes mellitus and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study characteristics Studies that adjusted for at least one covariate Studies that did not adjustment for covariates
No. of studies Pooled OR (95% CI) I2 (%) P value¥ No. of studies Pooled OR (95% CI) I2 (%) P value¥
Study design
 Case control 5 2.89 (2.02, 4.12) 0.0 0.773 4 1.39 (0.79, 2.45) 0.0 0.459
 Cohort 4 3.36 (1.82, 6.20) 40.2 0.171 3 1.47 (0.93, 2.34) 0.0 0.501
 Cross sectional 4 1.72 (1.23, 2,41) 19.1 0.250 4 1.45 (0.68, 3.09) 73.2 0.011
Type of TB
 Both or not defined 7 2.72 (1.88, 3.94) 38.4 0.136 7 1.90 (1.40, 2.60) 0.0 0.492
 New 5 2.36 (1.59, 3.51) 3.8 0.385 2 1.64 (0.99, 2.71) 0.0 0.436
 Previously treated 1     2 0.77 (0.36, 1.67) 35.4 0.115
Diagnosis of TB
 Culture confirmed 8 1.97 (1.51, 2.57) 0.0 0.831 8 1.60 (1.08, 2.38) 43.6 0.088
 Sputum smear test only 5 3.73 (2.33, 5.97) 28.0 0.235 3 1.03 (0.58, 182) 0.0 0.736
Type of DM
 Type 2 6 2.67 (1.82, 3.93) 40.7 0.134 3 1.12 (0.52, 2.42) 67.3 0.047
 Type 1 and type 2 5 2.22 (1.31, 3.76) 35.8 0.183 3 1.77 (1.08, 2.89) 35.5 0.212
 Not defined 2 2.37 (1.29, 4.34) 0.0 0.872 5 1.46 (0.84, 2.51) 0.0 0.428
Diagnosis of DM
 HbA1c or FBS 3 2.42 (1.49, 3.93) 0.0 0.981 1    
 Only FBS 6 2.68 (1.45, 4.96) 53.5 0.056 6 1.50 (0.93, 2.42) 51.6 0.066
 Self-report/unspecified 4 2.33 (1.65, 3.29) 21.5 0.282 4 1.49 (0.77, 2.89) 21.9 0.279
Country income level*
 Lower middle income 4 2.95 (1.69, 5.16) 40.6 0.168 1    
 Upper middle income 4 2.32 (1.65, 3.28) 0.0 0.418 7 1.27 (0.80, 2.01) 56.9 0.031
 High income 5 2.13 (1.29, 3.52) 34.6 0.191 3 1.88 (1.07, 3.29) 0.0 0.963
 Overall 13 2.43 (1.90, 3.12) 19.1 0.250 11 1.45 (1.05, 2.02) 35.4 0.115
  1. OR odds ratio, I2 the variation in estimate attributable to heterogeneity, ¥ P value for heterogeneity, CI confidence interval, TB tuberculosis, DM diabetes mellitus, FBS fasting blood sugar, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin
  2. Effect estimate not pooled due limited number of available studies
  3. *Income level based on World Bank Classification ( https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups )