Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis assessing the association between diabetes mellitus and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis 

From: Association between diabetes mellitus and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author County Design Sample size (TB-DM) Data collection procedure DM diagnosis Diagnosis of TB Diagnosis of MDR-TB TB type DM type OR (95% CI)†† Adjustment to confounders
Baghaei P et al. [25] Iran CC 282 (24) Record review Not specified Not specified Not specified All Type not mentioned 0.68 (0.19–2.36) No
Bashar M et al. [18] USA CC 155 (50) Record review Not specified Not specified Not specified All T1 and T2 5.30 (1.90–14.70) Homelessness and HIV status
Carreira S et al. [34] Portugal RC 246 (123) Record review FBS/previous history of DM and receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents Not specified Not specified All Type not mentioned 1.49 (0.24–9.06) No
Chang JT [14] Taiwan PC 192 (60) Record review/clinical/laboratory FBS Clinical/chest radiographs/sputum culture (LJ media) DST (proportional methods) New T2 6.66 (0.68–65.38) No
Fisher-Hoch SP et al. [50] USA CS 1442 (401) Not mentioned Self-report Sputum Culture DST All T2 2.14 (1.10–4.17) Age, gender, alcohol and drug abuse, HIV infection, history of previous TB infection
Fisher-Hoch SP et al. [50] Mexico CS 1436 (287) Not mentioned Self-report AFB/culture DST All T2 1.80 (1.13–2.87) Age and gender
Gomez-Gomez A et al. [23] Mexico CC 175 (56) Record review FBS/HbA1c Culture/PCR for mycobacterium TB complex DST (proportion method) All T1 and T2 2.51 (1.11–5.67) Age, sex, smoking history, chronic alcohol abuse, malnutrition, other illness conditions
Hafez S et al. [32] Egypt PC 40 (12) Face-to-face interview/clinical/laboratory FBS AFB/culture (LJ) DST (proportional method) All T1 and T2 2.96 (0.73–11.93) No
Hsu A et al. [48]* Taiwan CS 139 (41) Record review/laboratory FBS Culture DST (proportional method) Previously treated T1 and T2 1.52 (0.59–3.95) Age, sex
Hsu A et al. [48] Taiwan CS 869 (204) Record review/lab FBS Culture DST (proportional method) New T1 and T2 0.95 (0.34–2.68) Age, sex
Jitmuang A et al. [54] Thailand CC 188 (31) Record review Not specified Culture (LJ) DST (proportional method) All Type not mentioned 1.28 (0.54–3.02) No
Magee MJ et al. [31]* Peru PC 823 (143) Record review/lab/interview FBS/RBS/HbA1c/medication with Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents AFB DST (Griess method) New T1 and T2 0.45 (0.26–0.78) No
Magee MJ et al. [53] Georgia PC 263 (37) Face-to-face interview/clinical/lab HbA1c¥ AFB/culture (LJ)/X-ray DST (absolute concentration method) New Type not mentioned 2.27 (1.02–5.08) Age, sex, HIV status and smoking
Magee MJ et al. [31] Peru PC 848 (43) Record review/interview/lab FBS/RBS/HbA1c/medication with Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents AFB DST (Griess method) Previously treated T1 and T2 1.10 (0.56–2.19) No
Mi F et al. [49]* China CS 422 (144) Record review FBS AFB/culture (LJ-media) DST (proportional method) New T2 1.3 (0.6–2.8) No
Mi F et al. [49] China CS 199 (43) Record review FBS AFB/culture (LJ-media) DST (proportional method) Previously treated T2 0.5 (0.2–1.1) No
Min J et al. [52] Korea, Rep. CC 195 (55) Record review Record review AFB/Chest radiographs/Culture DST (LJ-media) All T1 and T2 2.68 (1.05–6.86) Age and smoking
Perez-Navarro LM et al. [19] Mexico CC 409 (146) Record review FBS AFB NA All T2 3.50 (1.10–11.10) Age
Perez-Navarro LM et al. [30] Mexico PC 507 (183) Record review/self-report /lab FBS AFB DST (BACTEC, MGIT) New T2 3.50 (1.60–7.10) Age, sex, smoking, overcrowding
Saktiawati AMI et al. [35] Indonesia RC 356 (23) Record review FBS AFB/positive chest X-ray/clinical GeneXpert (MTB/RIF)/DST All T2   
Rifat M et al. [20] Bangladesh CC 1000 (83) Face-to-face interview and record review Not specified AFB/X-ray PCR (Xpert MTB/RIF)/culture/DST/Line probe assay All T2 2.56 (1.51–4.34) Age, education, occupation and smoking status
Salindri A et al. [33] Georgia PC 268 (36) Interview/lab HbA1c Molecular diagnostic test/AFB/culture (LJ)/clinical DST (absolute concentration method) New Type not mentioned 2.51 (1.00–6.31) Age, sex, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, HIV status, kidney disease
Suarez-Garcia I et al. [21] Spain CC 696 (41) Record review Not specified Culture DST (agar proportion method) All Type not mentioned 1.84 (0.53–6.33) No
Tanrikulu A et al. [28] Turkey CC 112 (9) Record review Not specified Culture DST (indirect proportion method) All Type not mentioned 4.65 (1.01–21.51) No
Zhang Q et al. [51] China CS 2141 (203) Record review FBS AFB/sputum culture DST (proportional method) All T1 and T2 2.11 (1.42–3.11) No
  1. T1 type I DM, T2 type II, DM diabetes mellitus, FBS fasting blood sugar, MDR-TB multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, TB tuberculosis, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, DST drug susceptibility testing, NA not available, FNAC fine needle aspiration cytology, PCR polymerase chain reaction, AFB acid-fast bacilli, PC prospective cohort, RC retrospective cohort, CC case control, CS cross sectional, LJ Lowenstein Jensen, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, TB-DM refers to the number of TB patients co-morbid with DM in the sample
  2. *These studies reported separate effect sizes for newly diagnosed and previously treated tuberculosis patients
  3. This study reported separate effect sizes by country (USA and Mexico)
  4. ††All effect sizes were presented as odd ratio