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Table 1 Systematic reviews categorised by inclusiveness of studies in languages other than English (LOE)

From: The prevalence of and factors associated with inclusion of non-English language studies in Campbell systematic reviews: a survey and meta-epidemiological study

LOE-category Number of reviews (%)
EL-justified 0 (0)
LOE-restricted 15 (12.2)
LOE-open 84a (68.3)
LOE-inclusive 17a (13.8)
LOE-undefined 7a (5.7)
Total reviews 123 (100)
  1. EL-justified reviews that exclude non-English studies with an explicit justification in the research question or research objectives, LOE-restricted reviews that exclude non-English studies without justifications, LOE-open reviews that do not explicitly exclude non-English (unless they successively include non-English studies, in which case they are LOE-inclusive), LOE-undefined reviews that do not provide a list of included studies
  2. aTwenty-seven reviews did not state any explicit language eligibility criteria. Twenty-two of these belonged to the LOE-open group, two to the LOE-inclusive group and three to the group of LOE-undefined reviews