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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patients in included studies

From: B-type natriuretic peptide-guided therapy for heart failure (HF): a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) and aggregate data

Study Number of patients (BNP-guided/symptom-guided) Age (years)
Mean (SD)
Patients ≥ 75 years
n (%)
Male
n (%)
LVEF (%)
Median (IQR)*
LVEF ≥ 40%**n (%) NYHA class I/II/III/IV Smoking status (non-smoker/ex-smoker/current smoker) Body mass index, kg/m2(mean, SD) Systolic BP, mmHG (mean, SD) Diastolic BP, mmHG (mean, SD)
Studies that provided IPD
Anguita [20] 60 (30/30) 69 (10) 18/54 (33%) 41/60 (68%) 40 (26, 65) 27/55 (49%) 3/38/19/0 37/7/16
Northstar [27] 407 (199/208) 73 (8) 186/407 (46%) 309/407 (76%) 30 (25, 35) 36/402 (9%) 80/268/59/0 47/114/110 26 (5) 127 (19) 73 (12)
Shochat [32] 120 (60/60) 70 (11) 50/120 (42%) 103/120 (86%) 30 (25, 35) 11/75 (15%) 1/55/41/16 34/0/40 125 (21) 74 (11)
Starbrite [31] 130 (65/65) 60 (15) 24/130 (18%) 91/130 (70%) 20 (15, 25) 0/129 (0%) 29 (8) 111 (21) 69 (13)
Upstep [24] 268 (140/128) 71 (10) 105/268 (39%) 196/268 (73%) 0/268 (0%) 0/83/147/37 27 (5)
All 985 (494/491) 70 (11) 383/979 (39%) 740/985 (75%) 30 (20, 35) 74/929 (8%) 84/444/266/53 118/121/166 27 (5) 124 (21) 73 (12)
Studies that provided aggregate data§
Christchurch
Pilot [29]
69 (33/36) 70 (10) 24/69 (35%) 53/69 (7%) 27 (8) 0/69 (0%) ~ 70% (class II) 127 (SD not provided) 76 (SD not provided)
Time-CHF HFrEF [26] 499 (251/248) 76 (8) 289/499 (58%) 327/499 (66%) 30 (8) 0/499 (0%) 371/499 (74%) (≥ class III) 25 (4) 119 (19)
Time-CHF HFpEF [33] 123 (59/64) 80 (7) 42/123 (34%) 56 (6) 123/123 (100%) 0/21/82/20 27 (5) 136 (23) 74 (12)
Berger [21] 188 (92/96) 71 (12) 88/188 (47%) 147/188 (78%) 29 (9) 11/188 (6%) All patients class III–IV 121 (18) 72 (12)
Prima [22] 345 (174/171) 72 (12) 166/345 (48%) 197/345 (57%) 36 (14) 93/345 (27%) 37/234/74 166/105/74 118 (21) 69 (11)
Signal-HF [25] 252 (127/125) 78 (7) 184/252 (73%) 180/252 (71%) 32 (8) 5/252 (2%) 0/154/96/0 134 (22) 74 (12)
Battlescarred [28] 242 (121/121) 74 (9) 138/242 (57%) 157/242 (65%) 39 (15) 90/242 (37%) 24/162/52/4 124 (23) 71 (13)
Stars-BNP [23] 220 (110/110) 66 (5) 127/220 (58%) 31 (8) 101/220 (current smokers)
Protect [30] 151 (75/76) 63 (14) 38/151 (25%) 127/151 (84%) 27 (9) 0/151 (0%) 129/151 (85%) (class II–III) 92/48/11 29 (6) 110 (16) 66 (9)
Guide-IT [11] 894 (446/448) 62 (51 to 70) in BNP-guided group, 64 (54–72) in symptom-guided group*** 161/894 (18%) 608/894 (68%) 25 (19 to 30)*** All had LVEF ≤ 40% 59/447/358/17 of 881 114 (102 to 128) in BNP-guided group, 114 (101 to 128) in symptom-guided group***
  1. *Mean (SD) for studies providing aggregate data. **≥ 45% for studies providing aggregate data. ***Median and interquartile range, § data from original reports or IPD meta-analysis by Troughton et al. [9] and Brunner La-Rocca et al. [17]. Missing data: Age, Anguita—6 patients with missing data; LVEF, Anguita—5 patients with missing data; Northstar—5 patients with missing data; Shochat—45 patients with missing data; Starbrite—1 patient with missing data; BMI, Northstar—4 patients with missing data; Starbrite—45 patients with missing data; Upstep—3 patients with missing data; SBP, Shochat—37 patients with missing data; Starbrite—1 patient with missing data; DBP, Northstar—1 patient with missing data; Shochat—37 patients with missing data; Starbrite—1 patient with missing data