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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Dietary intakes of flavan-3-ols and cardiovascular health: a field synopsis using evidence mapping of randomized trials and prospective cohort studies

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Populations: humans only  Populations: those including:
 Adults 18+ years of age   Non-human subjects (e.g., in vitro, cell, stem cell, or animal studies)
 Healthy adults
 Adults at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD)   Children and adolescents (< 18 years old)
 Adults who had existing CVD   Pregnant or lactating women
 Cancer survivors who were cancer-free at the time of the study   Adults with prior organ transplantation
 All elderly unless clear disease (e.g., renal disease)   Adults with chronic, inflammatory, or autoimmune disease conditions (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, chronic kidney disease)
  100% smokers
  Participants in concurrent cancer or exercise trials
  Studies with < 10 subjects
Interventions:  Interventions:
 Foods, beverages, supplements, or extracts that described or defined flavan-3-ol content either as monomers or polymers   Did not evaluate a specific intervention (e.g., spice blend, dietary patterns rich in flavan-3-ol food sources)
  Foods with no or low flavan-3-ol content (e.g., white chocolate, raisins)
 Example foods: fruits (e.g., apples, berries, grapes), dark chocolate, cocoa, teas, red wine)
  Foods with insufficient data to allow a reasonable estimation of flavan-3-ol content using standardized databases [16,17,18]
 Studies must quantify flavan-3-ols consumed or provide sufficient data that allowed estimation of the flavan-3-ol content via standardized databases1 [16,17,18]   Did not specify the type of wine (e.g., white, red, rice), alcohol, or chocolate (e.g., dark, white, or milk chocolate) in their questionnaires and/or reported results
Comparators of interest:  Comparators of interest:
 Low or no flavan-3-ol content, including placebos   Studies that did not differentiate flavan-3-ol content (e.g., a study evaluating the effects of alcohol comparing red wine vs. de-alcoholized red wine)
Outcomes of interest:  Outcomes of interest:
 Key clinical and intermediate outcomes (Table 2)2   Clinical and intermediate outcomes of interest (Table 2) that do not meet the minimum follow-up requirements
Study designs of interest:  Study designs of interest:
 Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)   Cross-sectional studies
 Prospective cohort studies   Case reports
  Case series
  Retrospective studies
  Systematic reviews and meta-analyses3
  Reviews, lectures, opinion articles, news articles, proposed studies (i.e., no results reported)
  1. 1For all interventions of interest when flavan-3-ols were not fully reported in an article, we utilized the recent USDA monomer and procyanidin databases or Phenol-Explorer databases to estimate flavan-3-ol content–either as monomers or procyanidin based on the intake values reported in each article.
  2. 2When outcomes were reported at multiple time points, only baseline and final follow-up results were extracted
  3. 3Though systematic reviews and meta-analyses were excluded during the screening process, their references were screened for any additional, relevant studies