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Table 1 PICO question used to derive the research question

From: Challenges of pain management in neurologically injured patients: systematic review protocol of analgesia and sedation strategies for early recovery from neurointensive care

Population: neurologically injured adults (> 18 years-old), admitted to the NICU secondary to traumatic brain injury, stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), or postoperative cranial or spinal surgery with or without coexisting neurodegenerative disease.
Intervention: implementation of parts or entirety of the ABCDEF bundle or other pain management strategies
Comparison: no implementation of any ABCDEF bundle parts
Outcomes: primary outcomes: (1) time to wean off mechanical ventilation, (2) time to early mobilization
Secondary outcomes: incidence of cognitive and psychological long-term outcomes (post-intensive care syndrome), time to discharge, frequency of dosing of opioids (patient-controlled analgesia, as needed dosing, or scheduled dosing), frequency of any medication administration with the primary indication of sedation, incidence of agitation and delirium, and incidence of opioid addiction after discharge.