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Table 1 Selection criteria

From: Effectiveness of self-management support interventions for people with comorbid diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis





Adult patients (above 18 years) with diabetesa and CKD in any health care setting

Participants without the diagnosis of diabetes and CKD


Self-management models including at least one of the following intervention components:

Provider education, provider feedback, provider reminders, patient education, patient reminders, and patient financial incentives

No intervention or any intervention other than those prespecified in the inclusion criteria


Clearly defined usual or standard care. This may be the chronic disease management programme that is already in place before a new model of care is introduced

Any intervention except those listed in the

inclusion criteria


Must include at least one of the following outcomes:


1. Clinical indicators (blood pressure, eGFR, and HbA1c)


1. Medication adherence

2. Self-management activity

3. Health service utilization including hospitalization

4. Health-related quality of life

5. Adverse events such as deaths

Lack of at least one relevant prespecified outcome

Study design

Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials

Studies reporting non-randomized studies

  1. aParticipants with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes were included
  2. CKD chronic kidney disease which was defined as a sustained decrease in eGFR to levels less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for a period of 3 months or longer, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA 1c glycated hemoglobin