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Table 2 Overview of behavior change techniques [25]

From: Structured approaches to promote patient and family engagement in treatment in acute care hospital settings: protocol for a systematic scoping review

BCT category Example and definition
Goals and planning Problem solving: analyze or prompt the person to analyze factors influencing the behavior and generate or select strategies that include overcoming barriers and/or increasing facilitators
Feedback and monitoring Feedback on behavior: monitor and provide information on evaluative feedback
Social support Social support (practical): advise on, arrange, or provide practical help for the performance of the behavior
Shaping knowledge Instruction on how to perform the behavior: advise or agree on how to perform the behavior
Natural consequences Information about health consequences: provide information (written, verbal, visual) about health consequences of performing the behavior
Comparison of behavior Information about others’ approval: provide information about what other people think about the behavior
Associations Prompts/cues: introduce or define environmental or social stimulus with the purpose of prompting or cueing the behavior.
Repetition and substitution Behavioral practice/rehearsal: prompt practice or rehearsal of the behavior one or more times in a context or at a time when the performance may not be necessary in order to increase habit and skill
Comparison of outcomes Pros and cons: advise the person to identify and compare reasons for wanting and not wanting to change the behavior
Reward and threat Social incentive: inform that a verbal or non-verbal reward will be delivered if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behavior
Regulation Conserving mental resources: advise on ways of minimizing demands on mental resources to facilitate behavior change
Antecedents Restructuring the social environment: change or advise to change the social environment in order to facilitate performance of the wanted behavior or create barriers to the unwanted behavior
Identity Framing/re-framing: suggest the deliberate adoption of a perspective or new perspective on behavior (e.g., its purpose) in order to change cognitions or emotions about performing the behavior
Scheduled consequences Situation-specific award: arrange for reward following the behavior on one situation but not in another
Self-belief Verbal persuasion about capability: tell the person that they can successfully perform the wanted behavior, arguing against self-doubts and asserting that they can and will succeed
Covert learning Vicarious consequences: prompt observations of the consequences (including rewards and punishments) for others when they perform the behavior