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Table 5 Summary of certainty of evidence in predicting outcome and resource use using GRADE

From: A systematic review of neonatal treatment intensity scores and their potential application in low-resource setting hospitals for predicting mortality, morbidity and estimating resource use

Outcome No. of studies Factors that may decrease certainty of evidence* Overall† certainty Importance ‡
   Limitations Indirectness Inconsistency Imprecision Reporting bias   
Mortality 5 studies (n = 2594) Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Critical
Morbidity 2 studies (n = 295) Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Critical
Composite (Morbidity and Mortality) 2 studies
(n = 10,218)
Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Important
Nursing workload 3 studies (n = 317) Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Critical
Hospital Costs 1 study
(n = 1768)
Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Important
Length of stay 1 study
(n = 1768)
Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Important
Time inputs 1 study
(n = 154)
Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Critical
Comparison of resource use 1 study
(n = 96)
Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Important
Rehabilitation 1 study
(n = 240)
Serious Serious None None Unlikely OO low Not important
  1. * From GRADE, Grading of Recommendations Applicability, Development and Evaluation
  2. †Certainty rating scale; high (), moderate, low, very low (OOOO)
  3. ‡Importance of outcomes (from GRADE)