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Table 1 Summary of inclusion/exclusion criteria for phase 1 and phase 2 of screening

From: Government policy interventions to reduce human antimicrobial use: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Criteria Include if Exclude if
Phase 1/title and abstract screening 1) The study assesses a primary outcome measure of interest. Study reports on human antimicrobial use, including consumption, prescribing, dosing, and sales of an antibiotic, antiviral, antiparasitic, or antifungal drug. Study does not report on antimicrobial use or only reports on antimicrobial use in animals or agriculture.
2) The study quantitatively evaluates the effect of an intervention. Study is a quantitative impact evaluation. Study is a qualitative study, editorial, commentary, review, or synthesis or does not evaluate the impact of an intervention.
3) A policy intervention is evaluated. A policy intervention using education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, changing the physical or social context, modeling appropriate behavior, or reducing barriers to action is being evaluated. Intervention was not a change to a policy (e.g., clinical study).
Phase 2/full-text screening 1) The study assesses a primary outcome measure of interest. Study reports on human antimicrobial use, including consumption, prescribing, dosing, and sales of an antibiotic, antiviral, antiparasitic, or antifungal drug. Study does not report on antimicrobial use or only reports on antimicrobial use in animals or agriculture.
2) The study quantitatively evaluates the effect of an intervention. Study is a quantitative impact evaluation. Study is a qualitative study, editorial, commentary, review, or synthesis or does not evaluate the impact of an intervention.
3) The study reports on a policy intervention enacted at the government level. The policy intervention was enacted by a government or government agency at the federal, state, provincial, or municipal level. Intervention was not enacted by a government (e.g., intervention was enacted in a single hospital or network of hospitals).
4) The intervention is clearly described The study provides a description that includes the intervention’s aim, enacting government authority, timing, and form. The study does not describe the aim, governing body, timing of the intervention, or form of the intervention.
Effectiveness review only:
5) The study design is sufficiently rigorous to meet the minimum methodological requirements of the Cochrane Collaboration’s EPOC group
Effectiveness review only: Study design is experimental or quasi-experimental, such as randomized controlled trial, interrupted time series, and controlled before/after study, or it can be re-analyzed to meet this standard. Effectiveness review only: Study does not have a control group or use pre-intervention data and cannot be re-analyzed.