Skip to main content

Table 2 Criteria for including systematic review articles, in the present umbrella review

From: The macro-economic determinants of health and health inequalities—umbrella review protocol

Study design Systematic reviews meeting Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) [40] criteria: (i) a defined review question (which includes at least two out of population, intervention, comparison, outcomes or study designs), and with a search strategy of a named database, and (ii) a search strategy including both a named database (at least) and one of the following: reference checking, hand searching, citation searching or contact with authors.
These reviews can include observational and experimental studies—for example randomised and non-randomised studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and cross-sectional association studies, as well as effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, modelling and implementation studies.
Timeframe No restriction based on the length of follow-up of outcomes.
Population Adults and children in high-, low- and middle-income countries.
Intervention/exposure The reviews must primarily focus on macro-, population-level rather than individual-level economic determinants of health. This may include reviews of association and modelling studies as well as reviews of intervention studies.
Comparator Systematic reviews of studies with and without controls will be included
Outcome Health and health inequality outcomes. Primary outcomes including but not limited to morbidity, mortality, prevalence and incidence of conditions and life expectancy. Secondary outcomes include health inequalities by gender, ethnicity or socio-economic status (for example by income, education, employment, receipt of benefits at an individual or area level). Cost-effectiveness data will also be extracted if available.
Setting Any setting—low, middle, high-income countries.
Year considered All years since the start of database.
Language English language
Publication status Only peer-reviewed published studies