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Table 2 Summary across reports of systematic reviews adhering to PRISMA reporting guidelines (N = 13)

From: Systematic review adherence to methodological or reporting quality

Item assessed Item description No. of reports reporting adherence by item Adhering SRs Total SRs %
1. Title Identify the report as a systematic review, meta-analysis, or both 13 1480 1741 85
2. Abstract: structured summary Provide a structured summary including the following as applicable: background; objectives; data sources; study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions; study appraisal and synthesis methods; results; limitations; conclusions and implications of key findings; systematic review registration number 13 885 1741 51
3. Introduction: rationale Describe the rationale for the review in the context of what is already known 13 1532 1741 88
4. Objectives Provide an explicit statement of questions being addressed with reference to participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes, and study design (PICOS) 13 1039 1741 60
5. Methods: protocol and registration Indicate if a review protocol exists, if and where it can be accessed (e.g., web address), and, if available, provide registration information including registration number 13 102 1741 6
6. Eligibility criteria Specify study characteristics (e.g., PICOS, length of follow-up) and report characteristics (e.g., years considered, language, publication status) used as criteria for eligibility, giving rationale 13 1342 1741 77
7. Information sources Describe all information sources (e.g., databases with dates of coverage, contact with study authors to identify additional studies) in the search and date last searched 13 1530 1741 88
8. Search Present full electronic search strategy for at least one database, including any limits used, such that it could be repeated 13 923 1741 53
9. Study selection State the process for selecting studies (i.e., screening, eligibility, included in systematic review, and, if applicable, included in the meta-analysis) 13 1048 1741 60
10. Data collection process Describe method of data extraction from reports (e.g., piloted forms, independently, in duplicate) and any processes for obtaining and confirming data from investigators 13 1059 1741 61
11. Data items List and define all variables for which data were sought (e.g., PICOS, funding sources) and any assumptions and simplifications made 13 865 1741 50
12. Risk of bias in individual studies Describe methods used for assessing risk of bias of individual studies (including specification of whether this was done at the study or outcome level) and how this information is to be used in any data synthesis 13 1251 1741 72
13. Summary measures State the principal summary measures (e.g., risk ratio, difference in means) 13 1353 1741 78
14. Synthesis of results Describe the methods of handling data and combining results of studies, if done, including measures of consistency (e.g., I 2) for each meta-analysis 13 1129 1736 65
15. Risk of bias across studies Specify any assessment of risk of bias that may affect the cumulative evidence (e.g., publication bias, selective reporting within studies) 13 657 1741 38
16. Additional analyses Describe methods of additional analyses (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression), if done, indicating which were pre-specified 13 879 1738 51
17. Results: study selection Give numbers of studies screened, assessed for eligibility, and included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally with a flow diagram 13 1094 1740 63
18. Study characteristics For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOS, follow-up period) and provide the citations 13 1324 1741 76
19. Risk of bias within studies Present data on risk of bias of each study and, if available, any outcome level assessment (see item 12) 13 1199 1738 69
20. Results of individual studies For all outcomes considered (benefits or harms) present for each study: (a) simple summary data for each intervention group and (b) effect estimates and confidence intervals, ideally with a forest plot 13 1399 1737 81
21. Synthesis of results Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals and measures of consistency 13 1150 1687 68
22. Risk of bias across studies Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies (see item 15) 13 527 1736 30
23. Additional analysis Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression [see item 16]) 13 631 1658 38
24. Discussion: summary of evidence Summarize the main findings including the strength of evidence for each main outcome; consider their relevance to key groups (e.g., healthcare providers, users, and policy makers) 13 1085 1741 62
25. Limitations Discuss limitations at study and outcome level (e.g., risk of bias) and at review-level (e.g., incomplete retrieval of identified research, reporting bias) 13 1358 1741 78
26. Conclusions Provide a general interpretation of the results in the context of other evidence and implications for future research 13 1480 1741 85
27. Funding Describe sources of funding for the systematic review and other support (e.g., supply of data) and role of funders for the systematic review 13 647 1741 37