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Table 2 The Vaughan Williams classification

From: Digoxin versus placebo, no intervention, or other medical interventions for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter: a protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis

Class Mechanism Examples
Ia Na+ channel block (moderate) •Quinidine
Ib Na+ channel block (weak) •Lidocaine
Ic Na+ channel block (strong) •Flecainide
II Beta-blocker •Propranolol
III K+ channel blocker •Amiodarone
IV Ca2+ channel blocker •Verapamil
V Variable •Adenosine
•Magnesium sulphate