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Table 8 Assessments of the likelihood of the causal relationship between spinal manipulative therapy and serious adverse events in reviews based on case reports and case series

From: The risk associated with spinal manipulation: an overview of reviews

Rating of causal relationship Ernst 2007 [118] Ernst 2005 [133] Ernst 2004 [89] Ernst 2003 [90] Stevinson 2002 [124]
‘Certain’, n (%) 8 (21.6%) 6 (42.9%) 12 (30%) 0 (0%) 5 (22.7%)
‘Likely’, n (%) 18 (48.6%) 6 (42.9%) 16 (40%) 0 (0%) 14 (63.6%)
‘Possible’, n (%) 8 (21.6%) 2 (14.3%) 9 (22.5%) 2 (100%) 0 (0%)
‘Not assessable’ or ‘???’, n (%) 3 (8.2%) 0 (0%) 3 (7.5%) 0 (0%) 3 (13.6%)
Total, n (%) 37 (100%) 14 (100%) 40 (100%) 2 (100%) 22 (100%)