Skip to main content

Table 6 Estimates of the incidences of serious adverse events (some scaled for comparability)

From: The risk associated with spinal manipulation: an overview of reviews

Death  
 1 in >3330.000–3,730,000 manipulations  
Stroke  
 1 in 20,000–2,000,000 manipulations  
Vertebrobasilar accident (VBA)  
 1 in 228,050–1,000,000 manipulations  
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)  
 1 in 228,050– 3,850,000 manipulations  
Lumbar disc herniation (LDH)  
 1 in 8,369,129 manipulationsa  
Cauda equina syndrome (CES)  
 1 CES in >1,000,000–128,000,000 manipulations  
CES or LDH  
 1 in >1,000,000–3,720,000 manipulations  
‘Serious adverse events’  
 1 in 1,000,000–250,000,000 manipulations  
‘Serious complication’  
 1 in 20,000–2,000,000 manipulations  
  1. aOnly one estimate was available