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Table 1 Summary of findings for spinal manipulative therapy

From: The risk associated with spinal manipulation: an overview of reviews

Year Authors Main objectives Number of pts receiving intervention Any AEs reported Any SAEs reported Estimate for the incidence of SAEs Communicated opinion
2016 Blanchette, M. A. et al. [80] Effect 460 Yes No No Safe
2016 Cerritelli, F. et al. [81] Effect 31 No No No Neutral/unclear
2016 Chou, R. et al. [154] Both >1100 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2016 Church, E. W. et al. [137] AEs 5934 Unclear Yes No Safe
2016 Hall, H. et al. [83] Effect 249 No No No Neutral/unclear
2016 Page Matthew, J. et al. [46] Both 117 No No No Safe
2016 Ruddock, J. K. et al. [84] Effect 261 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2016 Ruffini, N. et al. [139] Effect 52 No No No Neutral/unclear
2016 Varatharajan, S. et al. [85] Effect 129 Yes No No Safe
2016 Wearing, J. et al. [140] Effect 55 Yes No No Safe
2016 Wong, J. J. et al. [86] Effect 369 Yes No No Safe
2016 Yao, M. et al. [87] Effect 1135 Yes Yes No Safe
2015 Cicchintti L. et al. [116] Effect NA Yes No No Safe
2015 Franke, H. et al. [82] Both 67 Yes No No Safe
2015 Gross A. J. et al. [36] Effect NA Yes No No Safe
2015 Liddle S. D. & Pennick V. [35] Effect 289 Unclear No No Safe
2015 Posadzki, P. et al. [138] Effect NA Unclear Unclear No Neutral/unclear
2015 Puentedura E. J. & O'Grady W. H. [134] AEs 10 Yes Yes No Harmful
2015 Southerst D. et al. [49] Effect 98 Yes No No Safe
2015 Yuan Q.-L. et al. [48] Effect 208 No No No Safe
2015 Zhu L. et al. [47] Effect NA No No No Neutral/unclear
2014 Bryans R. et al. [9] Both 513 Yes No No Safe
2014 Clar C. et al. [101] Effect NA Yes Yes No Neutral/unclear
2014 Close C. et al. [53] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2014 Franke H. et al. [52] Effect 779 Yes No No Safe
2014 Kizhakkeveettil A. et al. [51] Effect 1799 Unclear Unclear No Neutral/unclear
2014 Page M. J. et al. [37] Effect 4 No No No Safe
2014 Sutton D. et al. [50] Effect 813 Yes No No Safe
2014 Todd A. J. et al. [98] AEs >34,605 Yes Yes Yes Harmful
2014 Tuchin P. [130] AEs 9 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2014 Yin P. et al. [93] AEs 94 Yes Yes No Harmful
2014 Young J. L. et al. [105] Effect 539 Yes No No Safe
2013 Brantingham J. W. et al. [97] Effect 109 Yes Unclear No Safe
2013 Hebert J. J. et al. [103] AEs 77 Yes Yes No Neutral/unclear
2013 Huisman P. A. et al. [57] Effect 350 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2013 Parkinson L. et al. [109] Effect >520 No No No Safe
2013 Posadzki P. et al. [56] Effect >448 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2013 Scholten-Peeters G. G. M. et al. [55] Effect 626 Yes No No Safe
2013 Schroeder J. et al. [54] Effect 195 Yes Unclear No Safe
2013 Wynd S. et al. [126] AEs 901 Unclear Yes No Neutral/unclear
2013 Yang M. et al. [38] Effect 39 Yes No No Safe
2012 Brantingham J. W. et al. [102] Effect >109 Yes No No Safe
2012 Dobson D. et al. [40] Effect 116 No No No Neutral/unclear
2012 Furlan A. D. et al. [148, 149] Both NA Yes Yes No Neutral/unclear
2012 Gleberzon B. J. et al. [106] Effect NA Yes Unclear No Safe
2012 Haynes M. J. et al. [125] AEs NA Unclear Yes No Neutral/unclear
2012 Kuczynski J. J. et al. [60] Effect 268 Yes No No Safe
2012 Lin J. H. et al. [59] Effect 283 No No No Neutral/unclear
2012 Posadzki P. & Ernst E. [58] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2012 Puentedura E. J. et al. [123] AEs 134 Yes Yes No Harmful
2012 Rubinstein S. M. et al. [15, 39] Effect 1195 Yes No No Safe
2012 Stuber K. A. et al. [132] AEs NA Yes Yes No Neutral/unclear
2011 Brantingham J. et al. [104] Effect >266 No No No Neutral/unclear
2011 Cross K. et al. [65] Effect 187 Yes No No Safe
2011 Huang T. et al. [43] Effect 131 Yes No No Safe
2011 Lystad R. P. et al. [112] Effect NA Yes No No Safe
2011 Posadzki P. & Ernst E. [63] Effect NA Yes No No Harmful
2011 Posadzki P. & Ernst E. [62] Effect NA Yes No No Harmful
2011 Posadzki P. & Ernst E. [61] Effect NA Unclear Unclear No Neutral/unclear
2011 Posadzki P. & Ernst E. [64] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2011 Rubinstein S. M. et al. [14, 42] Effect 2435 Yes No No Safe
2011 Walker B. F. et al. [41, 44] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2010 Carlesso L. C. et al. [96] AEs NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2010 Carnes D. et al. [88] AEs 25,179 Yes Yes Yes Safe
2010 Ernst E. [128] AEs 26 Unclear Yes No Harmful
2010 Hahne A. J. et al. [66] Effect NA No No No Safe
2010 Kaminskyj A. et al. [108] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2010 Shin B.-C. et al. [95] AEs 18 Yes Yes No Harmful
2009 Boudreau R. et al. [147] Effect >52 Yes Yes No Safe
2009 Boudreau R. & Spry C. [151] Effect 1 No No No Safe
2009 Brurberg K. G. et al. [145] Effect >695 Yes No No Safe
2009 Gouveia L. O. et al. [99] AEs >2838 Yes Yes Yes Harmful
2009 Hunt K. J. et al. [67] Effect NA Yes No No Safe
2009 Khorsan B. et al. [94] Effect >297 Unclear Yes No Neutral/unclear
2009 Reiman M. P. et al. [110] Effect >76 Yes Unclear No Neutral/unclear
2008 Miley M. L. et al. [127] AEs NA Unclear Yes Yes Harmful
2008 Stuber K. J. & Smith D. L. [107] Effect 285 No No No Neutral/unclear
2008 Vernon H. & Humphreys B. K. [68] Effect 178 Yes No No Safe
2007 Chou R. & Huffman L. H. [141, 143] Effect NA Yes Yes Yes Safe
2007 Ernst E. [118] AEs >924 Yes Yes No Harmful
2007 Gross A. R. et al. [71] Effect NA Unclear No No Safe
2007 Hawk C. et al. [100] Effect NA Yes No No Safe
2007 Luijsterburg P. A. J. et al. [70] Effect 175 No No No Neutral/unclear
2007 Vernon H. & Humphreys B. K. [69] Effect 701 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2007 Vernon H. et al. [113] Effect 593 Yes No No Safe
2006 Gemmell H. & Miller P. [111] Effect >79 Unclear Unclear No Safe
2006 Proctor M. et al. [16] Effect >162 Yes Unclear No Safe
2006 Snelling N. J. [135] Both >214 Yes Yes Yes Neutral/unclear
2005 Brown A. et al. [146] Effect NA Yes Yes No Safe
2005 Ernst E. [133] AEs 14 Yes Yes No Harmful
2005 Hondras M. A. et al. [17] Effect NA No No No Safe
2005 Lisi A. J. et al. [120] Effect 183 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2005 Rubinstein S. M. et al. [91] AEs 7 Unclear Yes No Neutral/unclear
2004 Brønfort G. et al. [45] Effect 85 Yes No No Safe
2004 Ernst E. [89] AEs 340 Yes Yes No Neutral/unclear
2004 Lenssinck M.-L. B. et al. [72] Effect NA Yes No No Safe
2004 Oduneye F. [152] Effect 128 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2004 Oliphant D. [115] AEs NA Yes Yes Yes Safe
2003 Ernst E. [90] AEs 2 Yes Yes No Harmful
2002 Ernst E. [119] AEs >4 Yes Yes No Neutral/unclear
2002 Ernst E. [136] AEs 42 Yes Yes No Harmful
2002 Gerritsen A. A. M. et al. [74] Effect 45 Yes No No Safe
2002 Gross A. R. et al. [142] Both NA Yes Yes Yes Neutral/unclear
2002 Gross A. R. et al. [73] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2002 Stevinson C. & Ernst E. [124] AEs >2357 Yes Yes Yes Neutral/unclear
2001 Bronfort G. et al. [76] Effect 400 Yes No No Safe
2001 Ernst E. [129] AEs >2016 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2001 Ernst E. & Harkness E. [75] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2000 Ernst E. [77] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
2000 Magee D. J. et al. [117] Effect 10 No No No Safe
1999 Fabio R. P. D. [121] Both 177 Yes Yes No Harmful
1999 Haldeman S. M. et al. [122] AEs 115 Unclear Yes No Safe
1999 Vernon H. et al. [78] Effect 176 Yes No No Neutral/unclear
1996 Aker P. D. et al. [79] Effect NA Yes No No Neutral/unclear
1996 Assendelft W. J. J. et al. [131] AEs >1795 Yes Yes Yes Neutral/unclear
1996 Hurwitz E. L. et al. [144, 150] Effect >935 Yes Yes Yes Neutral/unclear
1995 Dabbs V. & Lauretti W. J. [114] AEs NA Unclear Yes Yes Safe
1992 Shekelle P. G. et al. [92] Effect >1500 Unclear Yes Yes Neutral/unclear
  1. When ‘Number of patients in total’ has ‘>’ in front, the actual number of patients is higher since incomplete data were provided by the review
  2. AEs adverse events, NA no data available, pts patients, SAEs serious adverse events