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Table 2 Results for newborn and child health systematic review reports

From: Are child-centric aspects in newborn and child health systematic review and meta-analysis protocols and reports adequately reported?—two systematic reviews

  Proportion (%) of “Yes” responses for the total (no.) of reviews eligible for scoring
   Type of review Intervention/exposure group
Itema number Item Overall (N = 248) Cochrane (N = 100) Non-Cochrane (N = 148) p value Children only (N = 151) Children and adults (N = 64) Family and maternal (N = 33) p value
  Title
1) Identify the report as a systematic review, meta-analysis, or both for pediatric population as a focus of review, if applicable 62.1 (248) 67 (100) 58.8 (148) 0.194 78.8 (151) 26.6 (64) 54.5 (33) p < 0.01*
  Abstract
2) Provide a structured summary including, as applicable, background; objectives; data sources; study eligibility criteria, including specifying targeted pediatric age group(s), interventions; primary and secondary outcomes; study appraisal and synthesis methods; results; limitations; conclusions and implications of key findings; systematic review registration number 9.3 (248) 16 (100) 4.7 (148) p < 0.01* 12.6 (151) 3.1 (64) 6.1 (33) 0.079
2a) If a systematic review includes both adults and children, describe a subgroup analysis for the targeted pediatric age group(s) in the methods and results of the abstract 11.6 (69) 9.1 (33) 13.9 (36) 0.538 NA 11.3 (62) 14.3 (7) 0.815
2b) Describe applicability or limits of applicability of the results of the systematic review to the targeted pediatric age group(s) 62.1 (248) 65 (100) 60.1 (148) 0.440 75.5 (151) 35.9 (64) 51.5 (33) p < 0.01*
  Introduction
  Rationale
3) Describe the rationale for the review in the context of what is already known
3a) In the contexts of the synthesized evidence in adults or other pediatric groups (non-targeted), explain the rationale for synthesizing evidence for the targeted pediatric age group(s). Provide hypotheses that relate to the targeted pediatric age group(s) 3.6 (248) 5 (100) 2.7 (148) 0.345 6 (151) 0 (64) 0 (33) 0.066
  Objectives
4) Provide an explicit statement of questions being addressed with reference to targeted pediatric age groups, interventions, comparisons, outcomes, and study design (PICOS) 0.8 (248) 2 (100) 0 (148) 0.087 0.7 (151) 1.6 (64) 0 (33) 0.703
  Methods
  Eligibility criteria
6) Specify study characteristics (e.g., PICOS, length of follow-up) and report characteristics (e.g., years considered, language, publication status) used as criteria for eligibility, giving rationale
6a) Justify the targeted pediatric age group(s) selected 74.2 (248) 73 (100) 75 (148) 0.725 88.7 (151) 34.4 (64) 84.8 (33) p < 0.01*
6b) Intervention: Justify the intervention for the targeted pediatric age group(s) addressing potential age-related differences in intervention effects 67.7 (248) 65 (100) 69.6 (148) 0.449 78.1 (151) 32.8 (64) 87.9 (33) p < 0.01*
6c) Provide rationale for extrapolation or adaptation of adult intervention, if any 29.6 (27) 28.6 (7) 30 (20) 0.946 40 (20) 0 (7) 0 (0) 0.037
6d) Comparators: Explain the choice of comparator(s) and, if applicable, evidence for the active comparator and/or standard of care for targeted pediatric age group(s) 9.7 (248) 11 (100) 8.8 (148) 0.564 9.9 (151) 7.8 (64) 12.1 (33) 0.759
6e) Outcomes: List and define all the primary outcomes addressed for the targeted pediatric age group(s). List and define growth and development outcomes and adverse outcomes (events), if applicable 41.1 (248) 57 (100) 30.4 (148) p < 0.01* 51.7 (151) 10.9 (64) 51.5 (33) p < 0.01*
6f) Outcomes: Explain the clinical relevance of the selected outcomes (benefits and harms) for the targeted pediatric age group(s) 34.3 (248) 38 (100) 31.8 (148) 0.312 40.4 (151) 20.3 (64) 33.3 (33) 0.018*
6g) Outcomes: Explain the validity, feasibility, and responsiveness of the outcome measures for the pre-targeted pediatric age group(s) 0 (248) 0 (100) 0 (148) p > .999 0 (151) 0 (64) 0 (33) p > .999
  Search
8) Present full electronic search strategy for at least one database, including any limits used, such that it could be repeated
8a) Describe the search strategy and terms (including database specific MeSH terms for pediatric population) used to address the targeted pediatric age group(s) 44 (248) 38 (100) 48 (148) 0.124 60.3 (151) 3.1 (64) 48.5 (33) p < 0.01*
  Summary measures
13) State the principal summary measures (e.g., risk ratio, difference in means)
13a) If data were available for adult and pediatrics, provide summary measures for adult and targeted pediatric age group(s) separately 2.2 (89) 2.1 (47) 2.3 (42) 0.950 NA (NA) 3.2 (63) 0 (26) p < 0.01*
  Synthesis of results
14) Describe the methods of handling data and combining results of studies if done, including measures of consistency (e.g., I2) for each meta-analysis
14a) For studies that included pediatrics and adults without a subgroup analysis of the pediatric population, describe how the data on targeted pediatric age group(s) were used in the analysis 0 (89) 0 (47) 0 (42) p > .999 NA (NA) 0 (63) 0 (26) p > .999
  Additional analyses
16) Describe methods of additional analyses (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses for targeted pediatric age group(s), meta-regression), if done, indicating which were pre-specified 54.9 (142) 64.1 (92) 38 (50) p < 0.01* 54.1 (74) 68.9 (45) 30.4 (23) p < 0.01*
  Results
  Study characteristics
18) For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOS, follow-up period) and provide the citations
18a) Provide sample size of pediatric group and subgroups (if applicable) for each study. 72.6 (234) 74.2 (89) 71.7 (145) 0.686 83.6 (146) 42.6 (61) 81.5 (27) p < 0.01*
  Synthesis of results
21) Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals and measures of consistency.
21a) Report the numbers of included studies with pediatric participants. Where applicable, report the number of events and total pediatric population on which the result synthesis is based 60.7 (168) 70.5 (78) 52.2 (90) 0.018* 79 (100) 20.4 (49) 68.4 (19) p < 0.01*
  Additional analysis
23) Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses for the targeted pediatric age group(s), meta-regression [see Item 16]) 54.0 (87) 65.1 (43) 43.2 (44) 0.046* 53.2 (47) 58.1 (31) 44.4 (9) 0.743
  Discussion
  Summary of evidence
24) Summarize the main findings including the strength of evidence for each main outcome; consider their relevance to key groups (e.g., healthcare providers, users, i.e., children, carer such as parents or legal guardians, and policy makers). 74.5 (239) 70.7 (92) 76.9 (147) 0.286 83.8 (148) 48.4 (62) 82.8 (29) p < 0.01*
  Limitations
25) Discuss limitations at study and outcome level (e.g., risk of bias, growth and developmental outcomes in children, and minimally important differences in children) at targeted pediatric age group(s) level (e.g., newborn and infant under 5 years), and at review level (e.g., incomplete retrieval of identified research, reporting bias and paucity of research in children) 35.8 (232) 29.4 (85) 39.5 (147) 0.128 46.9 (145) 16.4 (61) 19.2 (26) p < 0.01*
  Conclusions
26) Provide a general interpretation of the results in the context of other evidence (e.g., evidence from adult studies and pre-clinical studies). Implications for future research in practice, or policy related to the targeted pediatric age group(s) 43.9 (244) 45.8 (96) 42.6 (148) 0.624 52.7 (150) 17.5 (63) 54.8 (31) p < 0.01*
  Funding
27) Describe sources of funding for the systematic review and other support (e.g., supply of data) and role of funders for the systematic review
27a) For each included trial in a systematic review, indicate (a plan to include) the source of financial support (such as government, academia or industry), if any, in the trial(s) 5.6 (248) 8 (100) 4.1 (148) 0.190 4 (151) 10.9 (64) 3 (33) 0.113
  1. *p-value correspondent to statistical significant at < 0.05
  2. aItem numbers are potential neonatal and child health modification (bold) and extension (a–g) items for PRISMA-P