Skip to main content

Table 2 Overview of prognostic factors extracted for IDP analyses and the role of the variable in moderator analysis

From: Rational and design of an individual participant data meta-analysis of spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain—a protocol

Individual subject characteristics Prognostic factors  
  Age Confirmatory
  Gender Exploratory
  Height, weight, body mass index Exploratory
  Ethnicity/race Exploratory
Lifestyle factors
  Participation in sports activities or physical fitness level Exploratory
  Smoking Exploratory
  Alcohol use Exploratory
Sociodemographic characteristics
  Marital status Exploratory
  Level of education Exploratory
  Income Exploratory
  Employment status Exploratory
Nature and severity of the low back pain
  Duration of the low back pain Confirmatory
  Non-specific Exploratory
  Radiation Exploratory
  Previous low back pain treatment received Exploratory
Comorbidities, e.g., diabetes, heart disease
  Presence of comorbidities Exploratory
Number of comorbidities Exploratory
Category of comorbidities Exploratory
 Type of treatment Manipulation, mobilization, combination  
 Psychosocial factors e.g., Back Depression Inventory, Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire Confirmatory
Treatment preference/ expectation e.g., preference for treatment, previous experience with treatment, expectation to final improvement, self-efficacy scale/beliefs Confirmatory